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Reduced in size from a Pliotograph. 

THE I31PKOTED liEAMIAG CORN. 

The Learning Corn was first brought to public notice at the Paris Exhibition, in 187S, 
^yhere it received the highest award overall other varieties ot'j'ellow field Corn, since which 
time it has been thoroughly tested by many with the greatest satisfaction. The unproved 
Strain of this variety is the Eirliesi Telhic Dtrd Corn in cuUimtion. ripening in less than 90 days 
from time of tUantiug. quite sui passing the Yellow Canadji and Flint varieties in earliness. 
proiludlceness and 'jwdity. 

Advantages of the Improved Learning Corn over all other varieties. 

1. It is extra early, and not a hard, tUniy com, but sweet Jiud nutritions, making excellent 
feed and the finest meal, its quality not being .vtrpassed by any other known variety. These. 
Jads alone icill he highly appreciated in the extreme northern latitudes where other varidics iciU not ripen. 

"... The ears are large and handsome, witfi very deep, targe grain, of deep orange color, and 
small red cob, the cob being the smallest, in comparison with the size of the ear, of any variety 
in cultivation. 

3. The stalks grow to medium size (not large), with few suckers, tapering gi-adually from 
root to top, producing 2 good ears to each stalk, and husks and shells msily. 

^ Its great productiveness. By actual measurement. l.JU bushels to the acre on good corn 
ground, with good, but not extra cultivation, was grown this season. 

o It is adapted to a greater variety of soils than other varieties, producing unusually well 
on light or heavy land, where other varieties would not thrive. 

Prices of Improved Leaming Corn—^Q\- bushel, S3. 00 : per gallon. SO.oO ; per quart, $0.15. 







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AND ■ 



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SoWTMBRM pTiiTBS 



DESIQNATED 

To give directions for the Cultivation of Vegetables, as 
practiced in the South. 



Entered according to Act of Congress by Richard Feotscher, in tlie office of the Librarian, 
at Washington, in the year 1877. 



•vvr-^:R.:Hi2a:o"crs:E] : 



Jvi'o^. 15 & 17 i)u Mairie ^ti'eet, 

NEAE THE FRENCH MARKET, 



GEO. MULLER, PKINTER, 4S BIENVILLE ST., N. O. 



INTRODUCTION. 



For a series of years I distributed to my patrons, who ap]^lied to 
me for advice, Almanacs published in the North and Northwest and 
written principally with regard to those sections of the country. 

The directions which these works contained respecting the cul- 
tivation of vegetables, &c., although excellent for the regions spoken 
of, were almost useless, and in rnany cases totally unfeasible in the 
South, where the salubrity of the climate, the almost total absence of 
severe frosts, the practicability of raising successive similar or diversi- 
fied crops in one season, and many other important natural causes, 
render the handling of the soil and times for planting necessarily very 
different. 

Having been a practical gardener myself, and, owing to my seed 
business, being brought into daily contact with the New Orleans Market 
Gardeners, most of whom I supply with seeds, and having always 
taken a deep interest in the cultivation of vegetables, I felt that I was 
qualified to give directions and information of a more practical value 
to Southern cultivators, than those found in the Almanacs and Seed 
Lists published by others who had not had these advantages. 

These considerations influenced me a few years since to compile 
and publish an Almanac and Garden Manual, to present to the public, 
giving hints as to the proper time and methods of cultivating vege- 
tables in the South, and so supply a want long felt in this portion of 
the country. 

In the improved condition of business in our section of the country, 
those who cultivate vegetables for sale, may look for a larger demand 
and a more extended field over which they can distribute their 
products, and therefore the questions as to "what to cultivate?" and 
"how to do it?" are of greater interest than ever before. Those who 
have been pleased with the past numbers of my Almanac and Garden 
Manual, will find the jDresent edition— for 1884— complete, interesting 
and reliable. The work has been carefully revised and enlarged, and 
will, I trust, aid materially in the development of that line of industry 
to which it is devoted. 

I have received many letters from all parts of the South endorsing 
the correctness and utility of the information given in these pages, 
and accompanied with numberless compliments in reference to my 
perseverance and enterprise, and the usefulness of my book, for all 
of which I return hearty thanks. 

' It has ever been my aim, by integrity and strict attention to business, 
to merit the confidence of customers and the community in general, 
and from the very liberal patronage bestowed on me, I may with- 
out presumption flatter myself that I have succeeded in doing so. 

Hoping that my Almanac and Garden Manual may prove yearly 
of more and m.ore assistance to the Gardeners of the South, and 
assuring my patrons that a continuance of their favors will be duly 
appreciated, I remain, yours truly, 

RICHAKD FKOTSCHEK. 



FLichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



SEEDS BY MAIL, 



Seeds can be sent by mail to any part of the United States in 
packages, not exceeding four pounds, at sixteen cents per pound or 
one cent per ounce or fraction thereof. On seeds ordered in papers 
or by the ounce I prepay the postage, except on peas, beans and corn. 
This refers to large sized papers which are sold at one dollar per dozen. 
When ordered by the pound sixteen cents per pound postage has to 
be added to the price of the seeds. Peas, beans and corn, thirty cents 
per quart. 

All packages are put up in the most careful manner, and every 
precaution taken to insure their reaching their destination in safety, 
Pui'chasers liTing at any place where my seeds a;re not sold, are re- 
quested to write to me to obtain their supplies. This will be more 
profitable than to buy from country stores where seeds left on com- 
mission are often kept till all power of germination is destroyed. 
As seed Merchants, who give out their goods on commission, rarely 
collect what is not sold, oftener than once every twelve or eighteen 
months, and as Lettuce, Spinach, Parsnip, Carrots, and many other 
seeds will either not sprout at all or grow imperfectly if kept over 
a summer in the South ; to buy and jilant such is but money, time 
and labor wasted. 

Here in oiu' climate, where we plant garden vegetables as freely 
in autumn as in spring, and where often the seeds have to be put in the 
ground when the weather is very warm, it is an indispensable necessity 
to have perfectly fresh seeds. 

My arrangements with my growers are made so that I receive the 
new crop, expressly cleaned for me, as soon as it is matui^ed. The 
varieties which are not raised in the Xorth, I order from Europe, and 
have them shipped so as to reach me about the beginning of August, 
just the time they are needed for fall planting. By following this 
plan I have always a full supply of fresh seeds of undoubted ger- 
minating qualities, while dealers who sell on commission have only 
those left from the winter previous. 

It cannot be too well impressed on the minds of all cultivators of 
vegetables, that seeds kept through a summer in this climate iciR not 
grow, and that all who use such seeds will be losers. 

All seeds that leave my establishment are thoroughly tested, and 
warranted to grow. 

Having received a great many complaints that letters which con- 
tained money addressed to me never reached me, I would caution nn- 
customers not to send any money in letters, without registering same. 
By sending one dollar or upward the cost, ten cents, can be charged to 
me. The cheapest and surest way is money order or draft, but where 
they cannot be had, letters have to be registered, which can be done 
at anv Post Oflace. 



For the Southern States. 



A Few Eemarks on Raising Vegetables for Shipping. 

Within the past few years the raising of early vegetables for ship- 
I>ing West, has become quite an item in the neighborhood of New 
Orleans. We have advantages here, which are not found elsewhere, 
for that branch of industry. Freights have been reduced to all points 
from here, and special cars built expressly for carrying green vegetables 
and fruit, have been put on the Eailroads. We are earlier here than 
at any other point, and with the rich ground we have and the large 
supply of maiuire, to be had for the hauling only, early vegetables can 
be raised very successfully. 

Almost every kind of vegetables are shipped from here, but Beans, 
Cucumbers, Beets, Tomatoes, Cabbage and Peas, form the bulk. In 
regard to Beans, most gardeners make the mistake of planting- 
common Bed Beans, when they should plant Dwarf Wax or Valentine, 
which find much more ready sale and better prices than the first 
named. In the way of Cucumbers the improved White Spine is the 
best variety, as it bears abundantly, and as it keeps its color, is better 
adapted for shipping than any other, I have been supplying the 
largest growers in that line with seed, the stock of which cannot be 
surpassed in quality. Of Beets only the dark red Blood Turnip or the 
Egyptian should be planted for shipinng purpose. The Egyptian is a 
very quickly growing variety and should not be sown quite so early 
as the Blood Turnip. January will be time enough. 

For Tomatoes the Extra Early Dwarf comes in bearing first, but 
should be planted only for the first crop, as when the Tilden and other 
large varieties come in the market, the former do not sell as well. 
Lettuce is shipped quite extensively; the Improved Passion is used 
principally for that purpose. 

Potatoes and Onions are shipped in large quantities ; but the for- 
mer are very uncertain in regard to prices. Late shipped Onions 
generally pay better than those shipped too early. The market often 
gets overstocked with vegetables, but never in the spring of the year 
as long as they can be shipped, and the planting at that time is more 
remunerative than at any other. 

There is a broad field yet to growers of vegetables for shipping. 

The past season has not been very profitable for shippers and 
growers of vegetables. We had late frosts killing all tender vegetables 
as late as 1st of March. We were late with Beans and Peas. Owing 
to the continued rain in spring. Beans got spotted, and Peas arrived 
in bad order at destination. Cucumbers and Cabbage were almost 
the only articles that paid, but the Cucumbers gave out too soon. 
The yield of potatoes was good, but owing to the wet weather they did 
not keep and brought but low prices compared with other years. 



The following remarks from A. W. Eountree, grower of oranges 
and early vegetables, will be of interest to those engaged in raising 
vegetables for shipping. 

"The great increase in close Bail Eoad connections at New Orleans, 
and the prompt handling of all perishable articles, has created a 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



demand for veft'etcibies of all kinds to supply the wants of distant 
communities. In the early spring the first vegetables are supplied 
from around the city of New Orleans, and, later from points along 
the Eail Eoads, each following the other in regular order as they go 
North, with a fresher article. Each gets his turn, and to be successful, 
the grower's aim must be to raise the best, and be among the 
earliest in his section,— find out what suits his soil best, and where are 
the best )narkets.— Pack carefully in nice packages, and ship to a 
reliable merchant. There are buyers at most all shipping points and 
a sharp competition among them, and the grower can get fair prices 
from them generally, and often more than he could realize if shipped 
on his own account. 

"It is a mistake for a grower to try to raise everything. Concentrate 
your lire on a few things, and learn to grow them well. Sort them 



carefully; don't try to make the 



1 the bad ; find out the wants 



of different markets, and aim to be aniung the first to supply the de- 
mand, and you will make money, hut slip shod ways wont pay." 




Mr.,^-'^ 



For tJie Southern States. 



1st Month. 



JANUARY. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

First Quarter 5cl. 4h. 15m, Afternoon. 

Full Moon 12d. lOh. 7m. Morning. 

Lnst Quarter 20cl. 12h. 3m. Morning. 

New Moon .27(1. Ih. 41m. Evening. 



DAY 

OF 

Month & Weok 



.^un Sun 
rises. sets. 



Moon 
r. & s 



CHR01V0L.0GY 

— OF— 

JMPORTAST EVENTS. 



1 


Tues. 


7 9 


4 51 


8 46 


2 


Wed. 


7 8 


4 52 


9 47 


3 


Thnrs. 


7 8 


4 52 


10 48 


4 


Frid. 


7 8 


*4 52 


11 44 


5 


Sat. 


7 7 


4 53 


m orn | 



Union of Ireland with Great Britain, 1801. 
Gen. Wolf born, Westerham, Kent, 1727. 
Eliot Warburton, Hi.st., Novelist, died, 1852. 
Introdu'n Silk manui'es into Europ'e, 153G. 
Vigil of Epiphany, 



1) Epiphany Sunday. 



Matth. 2. 



Day's length, 9h, 46m. 



6 


Sam. 


7 7 


4 53 


12 44 


7 


Mon. 


7 7 


4 53 


1 50 


8 


Tues. 


7 6 


4 54 


2 50 


9 


Wed. 


7 6 


4 54 


3 49 


10 


Thurs. 


7 6 


4 54 


4 50 


11 


Frid, 


7 5 


4 55 


5 50 


12 


Sat. 


7 4 


4 56 


rises. 



Epiphany, or 12th day, old Christmas Day. 
Bobert Nicoll, poet, born, 1814. 
Bat. N. O., 1815&Inang. Gov. Nicholls '77. 
Car. Lucr. Herschel. A.stiono'r, died, 1848. 
1st Steamb't New Orleans fr. Pittfsburg, 12. 
First Lottery drawn in England, 1569. 
St. Ar cadi us, Martyr. 



2) 1st Sunday after Epiphany. Luke 2. 



Day's length, 9h. 54m. 



13 


SlMl. 


7 3 


4 57 


5 50 


14 


Mon. 


7 3 


4 57 


6 48 


15 


Tues. 


7 2 


4 58 


7 26 


16 


Wed. 


7 1 


4 59 


8 16 


17 


Thurs. 


7 1 


4 59 


9 14 


18 


Frid. 


7 


5 


10 9 


19 


Sat. 


7 


5 


11 7 



G. Fox, Founder Sect of Quakers, died, 1690. 
"Great Frost" in England, began 1205, 
Thomas Crotton Croker, born^ 1798. 
Edmond Spencer, Poet, died, 1599. 
Mozart, Musician, born, 1756. 
Festival of St. Peter's Chair, at Rome. 
James Wntt, born, 1736, 



3) 2d Sunday after Epiphany. John 2. 



Day's length, lOh. 2m. 



20 Sim. 


6 59 


5 1 


11 59 


21 


Mon, 


6 58 


5 2 


morn 


22 


Tues. 


6 58 


5 2 


12 56 1 


23 


Wed. 


6 57 


5 31 


1 55 


24 


Thurs. 


6 56 


5 4 


3 


25 


Frid. 


6 55 


5 5 


4 2 


26 


Sat. 


6 55 


5 5 


5 



Coldest day in the century, 1838. 
St. Ag:nes, Virgin Martyr, 304. 
Francis Bacon, born, 1561. 
Thanksgiving for victory of 8th, 1815, 
Frederick the Great, born, 1712. 
St. Paul's Day, 
Louisiana seceded, 1861. 



4) 3d Sunday after Epiphany, Matth, 



Day's length, lOh, 12m. 



27 


Sam. 


6 54 


5 6 


5 46 


28 


Mon. 


6 53 


5 7 


sets. 


29 


Tues. 


6 52 


5 8 


7 12 


30 


Wed. 


6 51 


5 9 


8 18 


31 


Thurs. 


6 50 


5 10 


9 30 



Admiral Lord Hood, died, 1816, 

Henry VIIL died, 1547, 

Emanuel de Swedenborg, born, 1688-89. 

King Charles I, beheaded, 1649. 

Ben. Johnston, born, 1574. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5644.— January 28, Eosh Hodesh Shebat. 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



2d Month. 



FEBRUARY. 



29 Days. 



Calculated for XY\e Latitude of the Soutl\ern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

First Quarter. id. 12h. 37m. Morning. 

Full Moon lOd. lib. 27m. Evening. 

Last Quarter ....18d. 91i. 52m. Evening. 

New Moon . . 26d. Ih. 15m. Afternoon. 



DAY 1 Sun 1 Suu j Moon 

OF ' rises sets. r. & s. 
Months Week ^ ^^^\^ ^ ^ ^^ | 


CHROAOLOGY 

— OF— 

J .lU'OR TA A T K f'EM TS. 


i iFrid. 
2 jSat. 


6 49 
6 49 


5 11 10 46 
5 11 11 40 


Washington elec. President. 1789. [mas Daj' 
Puritication of the Blessed Virgin. [Candle*^ 


5) 4th Sunday after Epiphany 


. Matth 8. Day's length, lOh. 24m. 



3 


Sun. 


6 48 


5 12 


morn 


4 


Mod. 


6 47 


5 13 


12 32 


5 


Tues. 


6 46 


5 14 


1 30 


6 


Wed. 


6 45 


5 15 


2 33 


7 


Thurs. 


6 44 


5 16 


3 36 


8 


Frid. 


6 43 


5 17 


4 37 


9 


Sat. 


6 42 


5 18 


5 41 



Henry Cromwell, born, 1627. 

Delegates from Confederate States meet at 

Ole Bull, born, 1810. [Montgomery, Ala., '61. 

('harles II, King of England, died, 1865. 

Charles Dickens, born, 1812. 

Mary, Queen of Scots, beheaded, 1587. 

David Kezzio, murdered, 1565-66. 



6) Septuagesima Sunday. 



Matth. 20. : Day's length, lOh. 38m. 



10 


§1111. 


6 41 


11 


Mon. 


6 40 


12 


Tues. 


6 39 


13 


Wed. 


6 38 


14 


Thurs. 


6 37 


15 


Frid. 


6 36 


16 


Sat. 


6 35 



19 


rises." 


20 


6 2 


21 


6 52 


22 


7 50 


23 


8 47 


24 


9 46 


25 


10 45 



Ptiot at Oxford, 1354. 

Mary, Queen ol England, born, 1516. 

Abraham Lincoln, born. 1809. 

St. Gregory II, Pope, 631. 

Sr. Valentine's Day. 

Galilei Galileo, Astronomer, born. 1564. 

Dr. Kane, Am. Arctic Explorer, died, 1857. 



7) Sexagesima Sunday. 



Luke 



Day's length, lOh. 52m. 



17 


Sun. 


6 34 


5 26 


11 49 


18 


Mon. 


6 33 


5 27 


morii 


19 


Tues. 


6 32 


5 28 


12 18 


20 


Wed. 


6 31 


5 29 


12 57 


21 


Thurs. 


6 30 


5 30 


1 44 


22 


Frid. 


6 29 


5 31 


2 42 


23 


Sat. 


6 28 


5 32 


3 36 



Columbia, S. C, burned, 1865. 

Pope Gregory V, died, 999. 

Eliz. Carter, classical scholar, died, 1806. 

IT, Gaghan & T. Connor, felon poets, hanged 

Pierre du Bose, born, 1623. [1749. 

George Wa.shington, born, 1732. 

Battle of Buena Vista, 1847. 



8) 


Quinquagesima Sunday. 


Luke 18. Day's length, llh. 6m. 


24 


8uii. 


6 27 


5 33 


4 27 


St. Matthias, Apostle. - ^ 


25 


Mon. 


6 26 


5 34 


5 14 


Dr. Bucan, born. 1729. 


26 


Tues. 


6 25 


5 35 


sets. 


Mardi Gras in New Orleans. 


27 


Wed. 


6 24 


5 36 


9 59 


Longfellow, born, 1807. [1447. 


28 


Thurs. 


6 23 


5 37 


8 45 


Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, murdered, 


29 


Frid. 


6 22 


5 38 


7 37 


Leap Day. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5644.— February 23, Parshos Shekolim. 
— 26, Rosh Hodesh Adar. 



For the Southern States. 



3d Month. 



MARCH. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

First Quarter 4d. 8h. 

Full Moon lid. 2h. 

Last Quarter 19d. 5h. 

New Moon .... . .27d; 12h. 



11m. Morning. 

20m. Afternoon. 

53m. Evening. 

27m. Morning. 



DAY 

OF 

Month & Week 



Sun 
rises. 

h. m. 



Sun Aloon 
sets. r. & s. 

h. m. h m 



CHRO^IOLOGY 

— OF— 

JM PORTA NT EVENTS. 



1 |Sat. I 6 21 I 5 39 I 9 39 I 1st No. of the Spectator published, 1711. 



9) 1st Sunday in Lent. 



Matth. 4. 



Day's length, llh. 20m. 



2 


8UI1. 


6 20 


5 40 


10 38 


Territory of Dakota organized, 1861. 


3 


Mon. 


6 19 


5 41 


11 36 


Edmond Waller, Poet, born, 1605. 


4 


Tues. 


6 18 


5 42 


morn 


Abraham Lincoln inaugurated, 1861. 


5 


Wed. 


6 17 


5 43 


12 28 


1st Locomotive run through Brit, tube, 1830. 


6 


Thurs. 


6 16 


5 44 


1 22 


Great tinancial excitement, 1863. 


7 


Frid. 


6 15 


5 45 


2 15 


Blanchard, Aeronaut, died, 1809. 


8 


Sat. 


6 14 


5 46 


3 18 


King William III, of England, died, 1702. 



10) 


2d Sunday in Lent. 


Matth. 15. Day's length, llh. 34m 


9 


Sun. 


6 13 


5 47 


4 28 


William Cobbett, born, 1762. 


10 


Mon. 


6 12 


5 48 


5 15 


The Forty Martyrs of St. Sebaste, 320. 


11 


Tues. 


6 11 


5 49 


rises. 


1st daily paper, "Daily Courant," Br., 1702 


12 


Wed. 


6 10 5 50 


6 56 


St. Gregory the Great, Pope, 604. 


13 


Thurs. 


G 9 5 51 


7 56 


Discovery of planet Uranus, by Herschel, 


14 


Frid. 


6 8 5 52 


8 50 


Andrew Jackson, born, 1767. [1781. 


15 


Sat, 


6 7 


5 53 


9 42 


Julius Caesar, assassinated, B.C., 44. 



11) 3d Sunday in Lent. 



Luke 11. 



Day's length, llh. 50m. 



16 


Snn» 


6 5 


5 55 


10 21 


17 


Mou. 


6 4 


5 56 


11 12 


18 


Tues. 


6 3 


5 57 


11 59 


19 


Wed. 


6 1 


5 59 


morn 


20 


Thurs. 


6 


6 


12 56 


21 


Frid. 


5 59 


6 1 


1 52 


22 


Sat. 


5 58 


6 2 


2 39 



Prince Hohenlohe's miraculous cures, 1823. 

St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland. 

Edward, King and Martyr, 978. 

St, Joseph's day. 

Vesta discovered, 1807. 

Louisiana ceded to France, 1800. 

J. W. von Goethe, Ger. Poet, died, 1832. 



12) 4th Sunday in Lent. 



John 6. 



Day's length, 12h, 6m. 



23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 



Sun. 


5 57 


6 3 


3 21 


Men. 


5 56 


6 4 


4 1 


Tues. 


5 54 


6 6 


4 43 


^\'ed. 


5 53 


6 7 


5 33 


Thurs. 


5 52 


6 8 


sets. 


Frid. 


5 51 


6 % 


8 17 


Sat. 


5 50 


6 10 


9 40 



Peter the Cruel, King of Castile, died, 1369. 

Mahomet, II, born, 1430. 

Annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mar3^ 

Gov. Winthrop, died, 1640. 

Vera Cruz captured, 1847. 

Planet Pallas, discovered, 1802. 

Mrs. Fitzherbert, died, 1837. 



13) 5th Sunday in Lent. 



John 8. 



Day's length, 12h. 22m. 



30 


Sun. 


5 49 


6 11 


10 29 


31 


Mou. 


5 48 


6 12 


11 17 



Dr. William Hunter, died, 1783. 
Beethoven, died, 1827. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts. —5644— March 11. Purim. 
27. Kosh Hodesh Nissan. 



10 



Richarcl Frotscher's Almanac ami Garden Manual 



4th Month, 



APRIL. 



30 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States. 

MOON'S PHASES. ' 

First Quarter 2d. 3h. 57m. Aiteruoon. 

Full Moon lOd. 6b. 24ni. Morning. 

Last Quarter 18d. lOh. 34:m. Morning. 

New Moon .25d. 9h. 37m. Morning. 



DAY yun 

OF rises. 

Month & Week ^, „ 



Sun 
sets. 



Moon 
r. & s. 



CIIRONOJLOGY 

— OF — 

IMPORT AST EVENTS. 



1 


Tues. 


5 47 


6 13 


morn 


2 


Wed. 


5 46 


6 14 


12 18 


3 


Tburs. 


5 45 


6 15 


1 2 


4 


Frid. 


5 43 


6 17 


1 42 


5 


Sat. 


5 42 


6 18 


2 20 



Earthquake at Melbourne, 1871. 
Jejfferson, born, 1743. 
Washington Irving, born, 1783. 
Oliver Goldsmith, died, 1774. 
8t. Irgernacb, of Ireland, 550. 



14) Palm Sunday 



Matth. 21. 



Day's length, 12h. 38m. 



6 


Sun. 


5 41 


6 19 


2 54 


7 


Mon. 


5 40 


6 20 


3 23 


8 


Tues. 


5 39 


6 21 


3 55 


9 


Wed. 


5 38 


6 22 


4 56 


10 


Tburs. 


5 38 


6 22 


rises 


11 


Frid. 


5 37 


6 23 


7 15 


12 


Sat. 


5 36 


6 24 


7 56 



Palm Sunday. 

St. Francis Xavier, Missionary, born, 1506. 

Louisiana admitted to the Union, 1812. 

Gen. E. E. Lee, surrendered, 1865. 

St. Budemus, Abbot, Martyr, 376. 

Good Friday. [Sumter. 

First gun of Civil War fired, 1861, at Fort 



15) Easter Sunday 



Mark 16. 



Day's length, 12h. 50m. 



13 


Suil. 


5 35 


6 25 


8 51 


14 


Mon. 


5 34 


6 26 


9 54 


15 


Tues. 


5 33 


6 27 


10 52 


16 


Wed. 


5 32 


6 28 


11 46 


17 


Tburs. 


5 31 


6 29 


morn 


18 


Frid. 


5 30 


6 30 


12 43 


19 


Sat. 


5 29 


6 31 


1 32 



Easter Sunday. 

Lincoln assassinated, 1865. 

Geo. Calvert, Lord Baltimore, died, 1632. 

Battle ofCulloden, 17i6. 

Dr. Benjamin Franklin, died, 1790. 

Shakespeare, born, 1564. 

Battle of Lexington, 1775. 



16) 1st Sunday after Easter. 



John 20. 



Day's length, J.3h. 4m. 



20 


!§U11. 


5 28 


6 32 


2 13 


21 


Mon. 


5 27 


6 33 


2 52 


22 


Tues. 


5 26 


6 34 


3 25 


23 


Wed. 


5 25 


6 35 


4 1 


24 


Tburs. 


5 24 


6 36 


4 35 


25 


Frid. 


5 23 


6 37 


sets. 


26 


■Sat. 


5 22 


6 38 


8 7 



E. Barton, "Maid of Kent," executed. 1534. 

Confed. victory at Plymouth, N. C. 

Madam De Stael, born, 1766. 

Shakespeare, died, 1616. 

Oliver Cromwell, born, 1599. 

St. Mark's Day. 

David Hume, born, 1711. 



17) 2nd Sunday after Easter. John 10. I>ay's length, 13h. 18m. 



27 


Sun. 


5 21 


6 39 


9 27 


28 


Mon. 


5 20 


6 40 


9 51 


29 


Tues. 


5 18 


6 42 


10 44 


30 


Wed. 


5 17 


6 43 


11 28 



Sir Wm. Jones, Poet and Scholar, died, 
Monroe, born, 1758. [1794. 

King Edward IV, of England, born, 1441. 
Louisiana purchased from France by U. S. 



Jewish FestiyalsandFasts.— 5644— April 5. Hagodol— 10. to 18. Pesaeh- 
25. and 26. Kosh Hodesh lyar. 



For the Southern States. 



11 



5th Month. 



MAY. 



31 Days, 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States. 



47m. 


Morning. 


47m. 


Evening. 


34m. 


Evening. 


16m. 


Afternoon. 


36m. 


Morning. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

First Quarter 2d. 12h. 

Full Moon 9d. lOh. 

Last Quarter 17d. lib. 

New Moon 24d. 5h. 

First Quarter 31d. lib. 



DAY 

OF 

Months Week I jj 



Sun Sun Moon 
lises. I sets, r. & s. 



h m. li. m 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



Tburs. 


5 16 


6 44 


morn 


Frid. 


5 15 


6 45 


12 42 


Sat. 


5 14 


6 46 


1 24 



St. Pbilip and St, James, Apostles. 

William Camden, born, 1551. 

Discovery of tbe Holy Cross, bj' St. Helena. 



4 


iSuu. 


5 14 


6 46 


157 


5 


Mon. 


5 13 


6 47 


2 25 


6 


Tues. 


5 12 


6 48 


2 59 


7 


Wed. 


5 11 


6 49 


3 24 


8 


Thurs, 


5 10 


6 50 


4 18 


9 


Frid. 


5 10 


6 50 


rises. 


10 


Sat. 


5 9 


6 51 


7 51 



18) 3rd Sunday after Easter. John 16. Day's length, 13h. 32m, 

Dr. Isaac Barrow, Eng. divine, died, 1677. 

Emperor Justinian, born, 482. 

Humboldt, died, 1859. 

St. Benedict II, Pope, Confessor, 686. 

Stonewall Jackson, died, 1863. 

Battle of Spottsylvania, 1864. 

Pacific Kaiiroad tiuisbed,1869. 

19) 4th Sunday after Easter. John 16. Day's length, 13h. 54m. 

Madame Ricamire, died, 1849. 
St. Pancras, Martyr, 304. 
Jamestown, Va., settled, 1607. 
Battle of Crown Point, 1775. 
St. Isidore, died, 1170. 
Sir William Petty, born, 1623. 
J. Jay, died, 1829. 

20) 5th Sunday after Easter. John 16. Day's length, 13h. 56m. 

Napoleon I, elected Emperor, 1804. 

St. Dunstan, Arcbbishop of Canterbury, 988. 

Hawtborn, died, 1864. 

Columbus, died, 1506. 

Ascension Day. 

Napoleon I, crowned King of Italy, 1805. 

Corpus Cbristi. 

21) 6th Sunday after Easter. John 15. Day's length, 14h. 4m. 



11 


Sun. 


5 8 


6 52 


8 36 


12 


Mon. 


5 7 


6 53 


9 32 


13 


Tues. 


5 6 


6 54 


10 30 


14 


Wed. 


5 5 


6 55 


11 55 


15 


Tburs. 


5 5 


6 55 


11 15 


16 


Frid. 


5 4 


6 56 


morn 


17 


Sat. 


5 3 


6 57 


12 20 



18 


Sun. 


5 2 


6 58 


12 52 


19 


Moi.. 


5 2 


6 58 


1 24 


20 


Tues, 


5 1 


6 59 


1 59 


21 


Wed. 


5 1 


6 59 


2 32 


22 


Tburs. 


5 


7 


3 10 


23 


Frid. 


4 59 


7 1 


3 48 


24 


Sat. 


4 58 


7 2 


sets. 



25 


Sun. 


4 58 


26 


Mon. 


4 57 


27 


Tues. 


4 57 


28 


Wed. 


4 56 


29 


Tburs. 


4 56 


30 


Frid. 


4 55 


31 


Sat. 


4 55 



7 44 

8 36 

9 24 
10 6 

10 45 

11 36 



Battle of Wincbester, 1864. 

Fort Erie captured, 1813. 

Dante, poet, born, 1265. 

Noab Webster, died, 1843. 

Paris burned, 1871. 

Peter tbe Great, of Russia, born, 1672. 

Joan of Arc, burned, 1431. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5644.— May 13. Lag Beomer— 25. Eosh 
Hodesh Sivan— 30. and 31. Shebuoth. 



12 



Bicharcl Frotscher's Almanac and. Garden Manual 



6th Month. 



JUNE 



30 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of Vc\e Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon : . . 8d. 2h. 29m. Afternoon. 

Last Quarter 16d. 9h. 14m. Morning. 

New Moon. 23d. 12h. 13m. Morning. 

First Quarter .30d. 12h. Sim. Morning. 



DAT Sun 

OF I rises 

Mouths Week 



Sun 

sets. 



li. m. li m 



Moon 
r. & s. 

li. m. 



CHROAOLiOGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



22) Whit Sundav 



John 4. 



Day's length, 14h. 12m 



1 


Snn. 


4 54 


7 6 


12 38 


2 


Mon. 


4 54 


7 6 


1 16 


3 


Tues. 


4 53 


7 7 


1 49 


4 


Wed. 


4 53 


7 7 


2 17 


5 


Thurs. 


4 52 


7 8 


2 49 


6 


Frid. 


4 52 


7 8 


3 20 


7 


Sat. 


4 52 


7 8 


3 53 



Battle of Seven Pines, 1862. 

Battle of Cold Harbor. 1864. 

S. A. Douglas, died, 1861. 

Lord R. Dudley, Earl of Leicester, marr'd A 

J. Pradier, Sculptor, died 1852 [Enbsart, 1550 

Surrender of Memphis, Tenn., 1862. 

First American Congress at New York, 1765, 



23) 


Trinity Sunday. 




John 3. Day's length, 14h. 18m. 


8 


Suu. 


4 51 


7 9 


rises. 


Emperor Nero, died, 68, Rome. 


9 


Mon. 


4 51 


7 9 


7 50 


Charles Dickens, died, 1870. 


10 


Tues. 


4 51 


7 9 


8 58 


Battle of Big Bethel, 1861. 


11 


Wed. 


4 51 


7 9 


9 36 


Sir John Franklin, died. 1847. 


12 


Thurs. 


4 50 


7 10 


10 6 


Harriet Martineau, Novelist, born. 1802. 


13 


Frid. 


4 50 


7 10 


10 35 


General Scott, born, 1786. 


14 


Sat. 


4 50 


7 10 


11 14 


St. Bitsil the Great, 379. 



24) 1st Sunday after Trinitv. Luke IG 



Day's length, 14h. 20m. 



15 


SUBl. 


4 50 


7 10 


11 54 


16 


Mon. 


4 50 


7 10 


morn 


17 


Tues. 


4 50 


7 10 


12 30 


18 


Wed. 


4 49 


7 11 


1 16 


19 


Thurs. 


4 49 


7 11 


1 58 


20 


Frid. 


4 48 


7 12 


2 26 


21 


Sat. 


4 49 


7 11 


3 6 



Magna Charter, 1215. 

Edward L of England, born, 1239. 

Battle of Bunker Hill, 1775. 

War dechtred against Great Britain, 

Kearsage sunk the Alabama, 1864. 

St. Silverius. Pope and Martyr, 538. 

Anthonv Collins, born, 1676. 



181- 



25) 2d Sunday after Trinity, 



Luke 14. 



Day's length, 14h. 22m. 



22 


Sun. 


4 49 


7 11 


3 52 


23 


Mon. 


4 49 


7 11 


sets. 


24 


Tues. 


4 49 


7 11 


8 6 


25 


Wed. 


4 50 


7 10 


8 45 


26 


Thurs. 


4 50 


7 10 


9 14 


27 


Frid. 


4 50 


7 10 


9 41 


28 


Sat. 


4 50 


7 10 


10 20 



Napoleon I. abdicated, 1815. 

Battle of Solferino, 1859. 

Nativity of St. John the Baptist. 

Battle of Baunochburn. 

Dr. Philip Doddrige. born, 1702. 

John Murra}-, Publisher, died. 1843. 

Queen yictoria, crowned, 1838. 



26) 3d Sunday after , Trinity 



Luke 15. Day's length, 14h. 20m. 



Sun. 

Mon. 



4 50 
4 50 



10 51 

11 33 



St. Peter the Apostle, 68. 

Bishop Gavin Dunbar, died, 1547. 



Je^yish Festiyals and Fasts.— 5644.— 23. and 24. Eosh Hodesh Tamooz. 



For the Southern States. 



13 



7th Month. 



J ULY. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southerri States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Fall Moon 8d. -ili. 50nu Morning. 

Lost Quarter 15cl. 4h. 18m. Afternoon. 

New Moon 22d. 3h. 34in. Morning. 

First Quarter 29d. 4h. 41m. Afternoon. 



DAY Sun Sun Moon 

OF rises. sets. r. & s 

Mouth & Week , ,„ , „ ,, „, 



CIIROMOJ^OGY 

— OF— 

JMfdRTANT EVENTS. 



Tues. 


4 50 


7 10 


morn 


Wed. 


4 51 


7 9 


12 24 


Thurs. 


4 51 


7 9 


12 57 


Frid. 


4 51 


7 9 


1 41 


Sat. 


4 51 


7 9 


2 24 



Battle of Malvern Hill, 1862. 
Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 
Quebec founded, 1608. 
Independence of the United States, 1776. 
Queen Magdalen of Scotland, died, 1537. 



27) 4th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 6. 



Day's length, 14h. 16m. 



6 


Sum. 


4 52 


7 8 


2 56 


7 


Mon. 


4 52 


7 8 


3 34 


8 


Tues. 


4 52 


7 8 


rises 


9 


Wed. 


4 53 


7 7 


7 54 


10 


Thurs. 


4 53 


7 7 


8 40 


11 


Frid. 


4 54 


7 6 


9 13 


12 


Sat. 


4 54 


7 6 


9 52 



Th. More, Chancel, of Eng. beheaded, 1535. 

Dr. Th. Blacklock, "the blind poet," died, 

John de la Fontaine, born, 1621. [1791, 

Zachary Taylor, died, 1850. 

John Calvin, theologian, born, 1509. 

J. Q. Adams, born, 1767. 

Kobt. Stevenson, engineer, etc., died, 1850. 



28) 5th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 5. 



Day's length, 14h. 10m. 



13 


Slim, 


4 55 


7 5 


10 24 


14 


Mon. 


4 56 


7 4 


10 55 


15 


Tues. 


4 57 


7 ?> 


11 35 


16 


Wed. 


4 57 


7 3 


morn 


17 


Thurs. 


4 58 


7 2 


12 19 


18 


Frid. 


4 59 


7 1 


1 19 


19 


Sat. 


4 59 


7 1 


2 18 



Dog days begin. 

John Hunter, eminent surgeon, born, 1728. 

St. Swithin's day. 

Great riot in New York city, 1863. 

Dr. Isaac Watts, born, 1647. 

St. Symphorosia and 7 sons. Martyrs, 120. 

St. Vincent de Paul, confessor, 1660. 



29>) 6th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 5. Day's length, 14h. Om. 



20 


Smii. 


5 


7 


3 21 


Confed. Congress at Richmond, 1861. 


21 


Mon. 


5 


7 


4 22 


Battle of Bull Run, 1861. 


2-2 


Tues. 


5 1 


6 59 


sets. 


Urania discovered, 1824. 


23 


Wed. 


5 2 


C 58 


7 36 


First Olympiad, 776, B. C. 


24 


Thurs. 


5 2 


6 58 


8 10 


Curran, born, 1750. 


25 


Frid. 


5 3 


6 57 


8 39 


St, James the Great. 


26 


Sat. 


5 3 


6 57 


9 7 


Flood at Pittsburg, 1874. 



30) 7th Sunday after Trinity. 



Mark 



Day's length, 13h. 52m. 



27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



Sun. 

Mon. 
Tues. 
Wed. 
Thurs. 



6 56 
6 56 
6 55 
6 54 

6 53 



9 36 

10 31 

11 11 
morn 

12 4 



Atlantic cable, laid, 1866. 
Battle before Atlanta, Ga., 1864. 
Albert 1, Emp. of Germany, born. 1289. 
Westfield Explosion, N. Y. Harbor, 1871. 
St. Ignatius Loyola, died, 1556. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5G44-23. Kosh Hodesh Ab. -31. Tisho beata. 



u 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden J\fanuaJ 



8th Month. 



AUGUST. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of tl:\e Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon 6d. 4h. 4Gm. Afternoon. 

Last Quarter 13cl. 9h. 48m. Evening. 

New Moon 20(L 6h. Sim. Afternoon. 

First Quarter 28a. lOh. 21m. Morning. 



DAY 

OF 

Moutli &Week 



Sun Sun Moon 
rises. sets. r. & s. 

h. m. h. m h. m. 



CHROXOiiOGY 

— OF — 

IMPORT AM' FJVEXTS. 



Frid. 


5 7 


6 t3 


12 49 


Sat. 


5 8 


G 52 


1 45 



Harriet Lee, Novelist, died, 1851. 
Mehemed Ali, Pasha of Egypt, died. 1849. 



3 


Swii. 


5 9 


G51 


2 39 


4 


Mon. 


5 10 


6 50 


3 29 


5 


Tnes. 


5 11 


G 49 


4 19 


G 


Wed. 


5 12 


G 48 


rises 


7 


Thurs. 


5 13 


6 47 


7 25 


8 


Frid. 


5 13 


6 47 


8 8 


9 


Sat. 


14 


6 46 


8 43 



31) 8th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 7. Day's length, 13h. 42m. 

Crown Point taken, 1759. 

John Banirn. Irish Novelist, died, 1842. 

First Atlantic Cable landed, 1858. 

Transfiguration of our Lord, 

Leonidas, SjDartan Hero, slain, 4S0, B. C. 

Fr. Huteheson, Moral Philos., born, 1G94. 

Isaac Walton, born, 1593. 

32) 9th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 16. Day's length, 13h. 3uni. 

Battle of Weisenburg. 1870. 

Viscount Kowland Hill, born, 1772. 

Pope Gregory' IX. died, 1241. 

Earthquake m Scotland, 181G. 

G. Coleman, the eider, DramHtist. died, 1794 

Ascension of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

Battle oi Bennington, 1777. 



10 


Smu. 


5 15 


6 45 


9 10 


11 


Mon. 


5 IG 


G 44 


9 47 


12 


Tues. 


5 17 


G 43 


10 10 


13 


Wed. 


5 18 


6 42 


10 51 


14 


Thurs. 


5 19 


6 41 


11 35 


15 


Frid. 


5 20 


6 40 


morn. 


IG 


Sat. 


5 21 


6 39 


1 29 



17 


Sifln. 


5 22 


6 38 


2 22 


18 


Mon. 


5 23 


G 37 


3 19 


19 


Tues. 


5 24 


6 3G 


4 G 


20 


Wed. 


5 25 


G 35 


sets. 


21 


Thurs. 


5 2G 


G 34 


6 50 


22 


Frid. 


5 27 


6 33 


7 12 


23 


Sat. 


5 28 


G 32 


7 42 



33) 10th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 19, Day's length, 13h. IGm. 

FredericJi the Great, dit^d, 178G. 

John, Earl tiusseli, born, 1792, 

Battle of Gxitvelutte, 1870. 

Kobert Herrick. English Poet, born, 1591. 

Lady Mary Wortley .Montague, died, 1762. 

Dr. F. J. Gall, founder of Pnrenology, died, 

Wallace, beheaded, 1305. " [1828, 

34) 11th Sunday after Trinity. Lake 18. Day's length, 13h. 2m. 

24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



Sun. 


5 29 


G 31 


8 12 


Mon. 


5 30 


6 30 


8 44 


Tues. 


5 31 


G 29 


9 20 


\Ved. 


5 32 


6 28 


10 


Thurs. 


5 33 


6 27 


10 46 


Frid, 


5 34 


G 26 


11 37 


Sat. 


5 35 


G 25 


morn. 



St. Bartholomew, Apostle. 

25th or 27th, Landiug of Ca?sar in England, 

Sir Bob. Walpole, born, 167G, [55 B. O, 

Dog days end. 

Leigh Hunt, died, 1859. " ^ 

John Locke, Philosopher, born, 1G32. 

Union defeat at Richmond, Ivy, 



35) 12th Sunday after Trinity, Mark 7, Day's length, 12h, 4Sm. 
31 jSuil. I 5 36 j 6 24 |12 42 j John Bunyan, died, 1683. 

Jewish Festivals and Fasts. — 5644— 21, & 22, Eosh Hodesh EhiL 



For the Southern States. 



15 



9th Month. 



SEPTEMBER. 



30 Days. 



Calculated for tl\e Latitude of the Southtern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon 5d. 5h. 35m. Morning. 

Last Quarter , 12d. 2h. 56m. Morning. 

New Moon ] 9d. 4h. 17m. Morning. 

First Quarter 27d. 5h. Om. Morning. 



DAY Sun 

OF rises. 

Month & Week , _ 



Sua Moon 
sets. r. & s. 



111. 



CHROJ«OL.OGY 

— OF— 

IMPORTAIST EVENTS. 



Mon. 


5 37 


G 23 


1 35 


Tues. 


5 38 


6 22 


2 32 


Wed. 


5 39 


{) 21 


3 21 


Uhurs. 


5 40 


G 20 


4 13 


Frid. 


5 42 


G 18 


rises 


Sat. 


5 43 


6 17 


7 2 



Napoleon III. captured at Sedan, 1870. 
Great fire in London, 1666. 
Cromwell died, 1658. 
Pindar, Lyric poet, 518, B. C. 
Confederates entered Marj'land, 1862. 
Geo. Alex. Stevens, writer, died, 1784. 



36) 13th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 10. Day's length, 12h. 32m. 



7 


Sum. 


5 44 


G 16 


7 39 


8 


Mon. 


5 45 


6 15 


8 18 


9 


Tues. 


5 46 


6 14 


8 58 


10 


Wed. 


5 47 


6 13 


9 38 


11 


Thurs. 


5 48 


6 12 


10 24 


12 


Frid. • 


5 50 


6 10 


11 9 


13 


Sat. 


5 51 


6 9 


morn. 



Independence of Brazil, 1822. 

Nativity of the Blessed Virgin. 

James IV, of Scotland, killed, 1513. 

MuMgo Park, African Traveler, born, 1771. 

James Thomson, poet, born, 1700. 

St. Guy, Confessor, 11th century. 

Sir Wm. Cecil, Lord Burleigh, born, 1520 



S7) 14th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 17. Day's length, 12h. 16m. 

Uprising of llic People of New Orleans against the usurping gov't 

Capture Harper's Ferry by S'ewall Jackson 

Gabriel Dan'l Fahrenheit, died, 1736 [1862. 

Battle of Antietam, 1862. 

Gilbert Bishop Burnet, hist'an, born, 1643. 

First battle of Paris, 1870. 

Alexander the Great, born, 356, B. C. 

38) 15th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 6. Day's length, 12h. 2m. 



14 


Sun. 


5 52 


G 8 


12 12 


15 


Mon. 


5 53 


(; 7 


i 28 


IG 


Tues. 


5 54 


G G 


2 39 


17 


Wed. 


5 55 


6 5 


3 42 


18 


Thurs. 


5 56 


G 4 


4 6 


19 


Frid. 


5 57 


6 3 


sets. 


20 


Sat. 


5 58 


(; 2 


6 33 



■ 
21 


SllBl. 


5 59 


6 1 


7 8 


22 


Mon. 


6 0, 


6 


7 44 


23 


Taes. 


6 1 


5 59 


8 20 


24 


Wed. 


6 2 


5 58 


9 1 


1 25 


Thurs. 


6 3 


5 57 


9 51 


1 2G 


Frid. 


6 4 


5 56 


10 46 


1^ 27 


Sat. 


6 5 


5 55 


11 44 



St. Matthew, Apostle and Evangelist. 

Beginning of Autumn. 

Wm. Upcott, Manusc. Collec, died, 1845. 

Pepin, King of France, 768. 

Pacific Ocean discovered, 1513. 

Saints Cyprian and Justiua, Martyrs, 304. 

Strassburg fell, 1870. 



39) 16th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 7. Day's length, llh. 48m. 

Sir Wm. Jones, Oriental Scholar, born, 1746. 
Michaelmas Day. 
Yorktown invested, 1781. 

Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5644.— 20. and 21. Eosh Hashonah 
—5645—22. Zom Gedaljah. 29. Yom Kippur. 



28 Sun. 


6 6 


5 54 


morn. 


29 Mon. 


6 7 


5 53 


12 43 


30 Tues. 


6 8 


5 52 


1 48 



16 



PdcJiard FroUcher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



10th Month. 



OCTOBER. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for l\\e Latitude of the Sout]:\ern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon 4cl. 4b. 40m. Evening. 

Last Quarter lid. Oh. 9m. Morning. 

New Moon 18d. 7h. 11m. Evening. 

First Quarter. 26d. llh. 34m. Evening. 



DAY 

or-- 
Month & Week 



Sun Sun Moon 
rises. sets. r. & s. 

h. m. li. m. h. m. 



CHROAOL.OGY 

— OF — 

IMt^ORTAJST KFENTS. 



Wed. 


6 9 


5 51 


2 45 


Thurs. 


G 10 


5 50 


3 48 


Frid. 


6 11 


5 49 


4 52 


Sat. 


6 12 


5 48 


rises. 



Fulton's tirst Steamboat trip, 1807. 
Andre' executed as a spy, 1780. 
Black Hawk, died, 1838. 
Battle of Germautown, 1777. 



40) 17th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 14. Day's length, llh. 32m, 

Horace Walpole, born, 1717. 

Jenny Lind, born, 1820. 

Margaret, Maid of Norway, died, 1290. 

Battle of Perry ville, Ky.,"i862. 

Great fire in Chicago, 1871. 

Benjamin West, Painter, born, 1738. 

America discovered, 1492. 



5 


Sitii. 


6 14 


5 46 


G 21 


6 


Mon. 


6 15 


5 45 


7 3 


7 


Tues. 


6 16 


5 44 


7 47 


8 


Wed. 


6 17 


5 43 


8 50 


9 


Thurs. 


6 18 


5 42 


9 52 


10 


Frid. 


6 19 


5 41 


10 38 


11 


Sat. 


6 20 


5 40 


11 13 



41) 18th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 22. Day's length, llh. 18m. 

St. Wilfrid, Bishop of York, 709. 



12 


Sun. 


6 21 


5 39 


morn 


13 


Mon, 


6 23 


5 37 


12 13 


14 


Tues. 


6 24 


5 36 


1 29 


15 


Wed. 


6 25 


5 35 


2 45 


IG 


Thurs. 


6 25 


5 35 


3 54 


17 


Frid. 


G 26 


5 34 


5 14 


18 


Sat. 


6 27 


5 33 


sets. 



Battle of Queenstown, 1812. 

Battle of Jena, 1806. 

Virgil, Latin Poet, born, 70 B. C. 

Marie Antoinette, beheaded, 1793. 

Bnrgoyne, surrendered, 1777. 

Last State Lottery drawn in Engl, 1826. 



42) 19th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 9. Day's length, llh. 4m. 



19 


Sun. 


6 28 


5 32 


6 18 


20 


Mon. 


6 29 


5 31 


6 56 


21 


Tues. 


G 30 


5 30 


7 35 


22 


Wed. 


G 32 


5 28 


8 45 


23 


Thurs. 


G 33 


5 27 


9 40 


24 


Frid. 


G 34 


5 26 


10 41 


25 


Sat. 


G 35 


5 25 


11 46 



Cornwallis surrendered, 1781. 

M. Dahl. Swed. Portrait Painter, died, 1743. 

Battle of Trafalgar, 1805. 

Charles Martel, died, 741. 

Dr. John Jortin, Critic, born, 1698. 

Daniel Webster, died, 1852. 

Dr. Jame& Beattie, Poet, born, 1735, 



43) 20th Sunday after Trinity. Matth 22. Day's length, lOh. 4Sm. 



26 


Sun. 


6 36 


5 24 


morn 


27 


Mon. 


6 37 


5 23 


12 48 


28 


Tues. 


6 38 


5 22 


1 50 


29 


Wed. 


6 39 


5 21 


2 44 


30 


Thurs. 


6 40 


5 20 


3 34 


31 


Frid. 


6 41 


5 19 


4 20 



Hogarth, died, 1765. 

Cuba discovered, 1492. 

Battle at White Plains, 177G. 

Surrender of Metz, 1870. 

Solomon's Temple dedicated, 1004 B. C. 

Ail Hallow Eve. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5645.— 10. Hashainoh Eaboh— 11. Shemini 
Azereth— 12. Simchas Thora— 19. & 2U. Eosh Hodesh Heshvan. 



Uth Mouth. 



For tlie Southern States. 

NOVEMBER. 



17 



30 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of tl:\e Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon 3d. 3b. 

Last Quarter M. 5h. 

New Moon 17(1. 12h. 

Fh-st Quarter .25d. 4h. 



16m. Morning. 

52m. Evening. 

51m. Afternoon. 

55m. Evening. 



DAY 

OF 

Month &Week 

1 I Sat. I 



Sun 

rises 



6 42 I 5 18 ' 



Moon 
r. & s. 
li. m 



CHROWrOJLOGY 

—OF— 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



5 4 All Saints Day. 



44) 21st Sunday after Trinity. John 4. Day's length, lOh. 31m. 

All Souls Day. 

Malachv, Archbishop of Armagh, 1148. 

George"Peaborly, died, 1869. 

The American 74 launched, 1782, 

Battle of Port Royal, 1861. 

John Kyrle, "The man of Ross," died, 1724. 

Oortez entered Mexico, 1519. 

45) 22d Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 18. Day's length, lOh. 22m. 



2 


Sim. 


6 43 


5 17 


5 50 


8 


Mon. 


6 44 


5 16 


rises. 


4 


Tues. 


6 45 


5 15 


6 29 


5 


Wed. 


6 45 


5 15 


7 39 


6 


Thurs. 


6 46 


5 14 


8 46 


7 


Frid. 


6 47 


5 13 


9 51 


8 


Sat. 


6 48 


5 12 


10 58 



§un. 


6 49 


5 11 


11 58 


Mon, 


6 50 


5 10 


morn 


Tues. 


6 51 


5 9 


12 35 


Wed. 


6 52 


5 8 


1 23 


Thurs. 


6 53 


5 7 


2 16 


Frid. 


6 54 


5 6 


3 21 


Sat. 


6 54 


5 6 


4 21 



Great fire in Boston, 1872. 

Mahomet, Arabian Prophet, born, 570. 

Martinmas. 

Sherman left Atlanta, 1864. 

French entered Vienna, 1805, 

Sir Chas. Lyell, Geologist, born, 1797. 

John Keppler, great Astronomer, died, 1630. 



46) 23d Sunday after Trinity, Matth. 22. Day's length, lOh. 10m. 



Tiberius, Roman Emperor, born, 42 B. C. 
Suez Canal opened 1869. 
Fort Lee taken by the British, 1776. 
St. Elizabeth of Hungary, Widow. 1231. 
Thomas Chatterton, Poet, born, 1752. 
Presentation of the Blessed Virgin. 
Profe.ssor Dugald Steward, born, 1753. 




4'y) 24th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 9. Day's length, lOh. Om. 

Th. Henderson, Prof, of Astron., died, 1844, 
Battle of Lookout Mountain, 1863. 
Evacuation of New York, 1783. 
John Elwes, noted Miser, died, 1789. 
Steam Printing, 1814. . 
Washington Irving, died, 1859. 
Sir Philip Sidney, Poet, born, 1554. 



23 


Sun. 


7 


5 


10 47 


24 


Mon. 


7 1 


4 59 


11 34 


25 


Tues. 


7 1 


4 59 


morn 


26 


Wed. 


7 2 


4 58 


12 4 


27 


Thurs. 


7 2 


4 58 


1 11 


28 


Frid. 


7 3 


4 57 


2 16 


29 


Sat. 


7 3 


4 57 


3 22 



48) 1st Sunday in Advent. 



Luke 21. 



Day's length, 9h. 52m. 



30 



Sun. I 7 4 1 4 56 I 4 26 I U. S. took possession of Louisiana, 1803 , 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5645.— 18. and 19. Rosh Hodesh Kislev. 
3 



18 



Richard Frotscher's Almomac and Garden Manual 



r2th Month. 



DECEMBER 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon 2cl. In. 

Last Quarter 9d. 6h. 

New Moon 17d. 8h. 

First Quarter 25d. 8h. 



39rn. Afternoon. 

10m. Morning. 

4ai. Morning. 

liu. Morning. 



DAY San 

OF "ses 

Month & Week }j 



Sun Moon 
sets. r. & s. 



m. 



CHROAOLOGY 

— OF — 

JM p o n TA ST Ev j:\ts. 



1 JMon. 


7 5 


4 55 


5 28 


Princess A. Comiiena, Historian, born, 1033. 


2 ITues. 


7 6 


4 54 


rises 


Hernan Cortes, died. 1547. 


3 jWed. 


7 6 


4 54 


5 59 


Eobert Bloomfield, Poet. bnrn. 1776. 


4 1 rhurs. 


7 7 


4 53 


6 49 


Pope John XXIl. died, 1334. 


5 jFrid. 


7 7 


4 53 


7 46 


Carlyle, born. 1795. 


6 Sat. 


7 7 


4 53 


8 41 


St. Nicholas. Archbishop of Myra, 342. 



49) 2d Sunday in Advent. 



Luke 21. 



Dav's length, 9h. 44m. 



7 


Sun. 


7 8 


4 52 


9 41 


8 


Mon. 


7 8 


4 52 


10 36 


9 


Tues. 


7 8 


4 52 


11 31 


10 


Wed. 


7 9 


4 51 


morn. 


11 


Thurs. 


7 9 


4 51 


12 18 


12 


Frid. 


7 9 


4 51 


1 18 


13 


Sat. 


7 9 


4 51 


2 30 



Cii-ero, Koman orator, assassinated, 43 B. C. 

Immaculate Conrreption of Blessed Virgin. 

Milton, born, 1608. 

Louis Napoleon, elected President, 1848, 

Louis, Prince of Conde, died. 1686. 

St. Columba, xlbbot in Ireland, 584. 

Battle of Fredericksburg, 1862. 



50) 3d Sunday in Advent. 



Matth. 11. 



Day's length, 9h. 40m. 



Sun. 


7 10 


4 50 


3 50 


Mon. 


7 10 


4 50 


4 48 1 


Tues. 


7 10 


4 50 


5 49 ! 


Wed. 


7 10 


4 50 


sets 


Thurs. 


7 11 


4 49 


5 52 ; 


Frid. 


7 11 


4 49 


6 51 i 


Sat. 


7 11 


4 49 


7 52 ! 



Washington, died, 1799. 

David Don, Botanist, died. 1841. 

Great Fire in New York, 1835. 

Ludw. Beethoven, emin. comp.,born. 1770. 

St. Winebald, Abbot and Confessor, 760. 

Capt. W. Ed. Parry, Arct. Nav., born, 1790. 

Secession ord. passed in S. Carolina, 1860. 



51) 4th Sunday in Advent. 



John 1. 



Day's length, 9h. 36m. 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 



Sun. 


7 12. 


4 48 


8 54 1 


Mou. 


7 11 


4 49 


9 53 ! 


Tues. 


7 11 


4 49 


10 51 1 


Wed. 


7 11 


4 49 


11 54 ; 


Thurs. 


7 10 


4 50 


morn. \ 


Frid. 


7 10 


4 50 


12 53 i 


Sat. 


7 10 


4 50 


1 35 1 



St. Thomas, Apostle. 

Emp. Vetellius, beheaded at Rome, 69 A. D. 

Newton, born, 1642. 

Treaty of Ghent, 1814. 

Nativity of our Lord. Christmas Day. 

Battle of Trenton, 1776. 

St. John, Apostle and Evangelist. 



521 Sunday after Christmas. 



Luke 2. 



Day's length, 9h. 49m. 



28 


Sun. 


7 10 


4 50 ! 2 40 


29 


Mon. 


7 9 


4 51 1 3 47 


30 


Tues. 


7 9 


4 51 4 54 1 


31 


Wed. 


7 9 


4 51 ' 6 1 



Macauley, died, 1859. 

Union repulsed at Yicksburg, Miss., 1862. 
Titus, Eoman Emperor, born, 41 A. D. 
Battle of Murfreesboro, 1862. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5645— December 13. Shanukah. 
19. Eosh Hodesh Thebet. 



For the Southern States. 19 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN. 



Tlio size depends upon the purposes for which it is intended ; 
whether the family is large or small, and the time which can be de- 
voted to its cultivation. The most suitable soil for a garden is a light 
loam. When the soil is too heavy, it ought to be made light by apply- 
ing stable manure, and working up the ground thoroughly. Trench- 
ing as done in Europe, or North, is not advisable, at least where there 
is any coco, as by trenching the roots of this pest will get so deeply 
incorporated with the soil that it will be very hard afterwards to get 
rid of it. Exposure towards the east is desirable. If there are one or 
more large trees in the garden, or on the immediate outside, their 
shade can be used in which to sow Celery, Cabbage and other seeds 
during the hot summer months, which will be an advantage. The seed 
beds for this purpose should be so arranged as to receive only the 
morning or evening sun. It is of the greatest importance that the 
ground should be well drained, otherwise it will be impossible to raise 
good vegetables. The most reliable manure for general purx)oses is 
v/ell decomijosed stable or barnyard manure. Manure from cows will 
suit best for light, sandy soil ; horse manure for heavy, stiff clay lands. 
For special purposes, Peruvian Guano, Blood Eertilizer, Eaw Bone, 
Cotton Seed Meal and other commercial manures may be employed 
with advantage. Where the land is very sandy, cotton seed meal has 
the most lasting elTect. For quick growing crops, such as Melons, 
Cucumbers, etc., the Blood Fertilizer and Guano applied in the hills, 
is very good. Soap suds are good for Celery ; it is astonishing to per- 
ceive the difference in the size of those stalks which are watered every 
few days v/ith the suds and others on the same ground, which are not. 
Wood ashes are best for Peas, either used as a top dressing when the 
peas just come out of the ground, or else sprinkled in the rows when 
planted. The New Orleans market gardeners raise as line vegetables 
as can be produced anywhere ; in fact, some varieties cannot be ex- 
celled, and very fev/ gardeners use anything but stable manure. 

Rotation of crops is another important item. Beets, Carrots 
and other roots should not be grown in succession on the same 
ground, but should be changed to those which grow above ground, 
such as Lettuce, Beans, Peas, etc. Good seed, good ground and good 
cultivation are essential in order to raise good vegetables. When 
plants are up the ground should be stirred frequently ; weeds ought 
not to be suffered to go into seed, but should be destroyed as soon as 
they appear. Hoeing and working the young crops during dry weather 
is very beneficial, because the weeds are then easily killed, and hoe- 
ing the ground will make it retain moisture better than if it were 
left alone. 



20 



BicJiard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden JSIanunl 







lliiiililf 












THE HOT BED. 



Owing to the open winters in the South, hot beds are not so much 
used as in the ISJ'orth, except to raise such tender plants as Egg-Plants, 
Tomatoes and Peppers. There is little forcing of yegetables done 
here, except as regards Cucumbers and Lettuce ; and if we do not have 
any hard frosts, the latter does better in the open ground than under 
glass. To make a hot bed is a very siniple thing. Any one who has 
the use of tools can make the wooden frame ; the sashes may be ob- 
tained from- any sash factory. I consider a wooden frame from five 
to six feet wide, and ten feet six inches long, a very good size. It 
should be at least six inches higher ai the back than in the front, and 
covered by three sashes 3|x5 feet. The manure ought not to be over 
one month old : should be thrown together in a heap, and when com- 
mencing to heat, be worked over with a fork, and all the long and 
short manure evenly mixed. In this State the ground is generally 
low, and to retain the heat of the manure for a longer time it is best 
to put the manure on top of the ground — that is, make a bank two feer 
longer and two wider than the frame. Keep the edges straight and 
the corners firm when thrown up about eighteen inches, trample the 
manure down to six or eight inches, then put on another layer of 
eighteen inches and trample down again ; place thereon the frame and 
sash and fill in six inches of good earth. After about five days stir 
the ground to kill the weeds which may have come up. then sow the 
seeds. In lower Louisiana the ground is too wet to dig out eighteen 
inches deep and then throw in the manure and trample down as re- 
commended in the North. A few hard rains, such as we frequently 
have in winter, and the manure would become so soaked beneath the 
ground that the heat would be gone. Another advantage, when the 
frame is put above the ground, is, that it will go down with the man- 
ure gradually, and there remains always the same space between the 
glass and the ground. If the ground is dug out and the manure put 
into the frame, the ground will sink down so low after a short time 
that the sun will have little effect upon it. and plants will become 
spindly. 



For the Southern States. 21 



SOWING SEEDS. 



Some seeds are sown at once where they are to remain and mature. 
Others are sown in seed beds and transplanted afterwards. Seeds 
should be covered according to their size, a covering of earth twice 
the size of the seed is about the maximum. Some seeds, such as 
Beans, Corn and Peas, can be covered from one to two inches, and 
they will come up well. Here is a difference again : Wrinkled Peas 
and Sugar Corn have to be covered lighter and more carefuU^^ than 
Marrowfat Peas or- the common varieties of Corn. It depends upon 
the nature of the soil, season of the year, etc. For instance, in heavy 
wet soil seeds have to be covered lighter than in sandy light ground. 
Seeds wdiich are sown during summer in the open ground, such as 
Beets and Carrots, should be soaked over night in water and rolled in 
ashes or plaster before sowing; they will come up quicker. When 
they are sown in a seed bed, the ground should be light enough not 
to bake after a rain. Some varieties of seeds require shade when sown 
during the summer, such as Cauliflower, Celery and Lettuce. Care 
should be taken to have the shade at least three feet from the ground, 
and shade only after the sun has been on the bed for two or three 
hours, and remove again early in the afternoon, so the plants may 
become sturdy. If too much shaded they will be drawn up, long-leg- 
ged, and not fit to set out in the open ground. The most successful 
cabbage-planters in this neighborhood sow their seed in the open 
ground, towards the end of July and during August, and give them 
no shade, but water and keep the ground moist from the day of sow- 
ing till the plants are transplanted. Seed should be sowm thinly in 
the seed bed. If plants come up too "thickly the^/ are apt to damp off. 

Lettuce seed should be sprouted during the hot months before 
sowing, according to directions given for June. 

To sow Turnips on a large scale during late summer and early fall 
months, the ground should be prepared in advance, and the seed sown 
just before or during a rain. Small pieces of ground, of course, can 
be sown at any time and watered afterwards. For covering all kinds 
of seeds a fork is preferable to a rake ; with either implement care 
must be taken not to cover the seeds too deep. Beans, Peas and Corn 
are covered with the hoe. Some fine seeds, such as Thyme or Tobac- 
co, are covered enough when pressed with the back of the spade to 
the ground. The seedsman is often blamed for selling seeds which 
have not come up, when the same are perfectly good, but, perhaps, 
through ignorance the party by whom they were sown, placed them 
too deep or too shallow in the ground ; or the ground may have been 
just moist enough to swell the seeds, and they failed to come up. At 
other times washing rains after sowing beat the ground and form a 
crust that the seeds are not able to penetrate ; or, if there is too much 
fresh manure in the ground, it will burn the seed, and destroy its 
vitality. 

When seeds, such as Beans, Cucumbers, Melons and Squash, are 
planted before it is warm enough, they are very apt to rot if it rains. 



22 



Richard FrotscJier's Almanac and Garden Manital 



The following Tables will be found useful to the 
Gardener, Farmer and Amateur. 



QUANTITY OF SEED USUALLY SOWN UPON AN ACRE. 



Beans. Dwarf, in drills 1^ Bushels. 

Beans, Pole, iu hills 10 to 12 Qts. 

Beets, in drills ■! to 5 lbs. 

Broom Corn, in hills 8 to 10 Qts. 

Buckwheat 1 Bushel. 

Cabbage, in beds to transplant ... 1 lb. 

Carrots, in drills 3 to 4 lbs. 

Chinese Sngar Cane 12 Qts, 

Clover, Red, alone 12 to 15 lbs. 

Clover, White, alone 10 to 12 lbs. 

Clover, Lneerne or Alfalfa 12 lbs. 

Corn, in hills 8 to 10 Qts. 

Corn, for soiling, 3 Bushels. 

Cucumber, iu hills . . 2 lbs. 

Hemp . Ig Bushels. 

Mutsard broadcast i Bushel. 

Melon, Musk, in hills .2 to 3 lbs. 

Melon, Water, in hills 3 to 4 lbs. 

Millet, broadcast , . . , . 1 Bushel. 



\ Oats, broadcast 2 to 3 Bushel's-. 

I Onion, in drills 5 to 6 lbs. 

Onion, for Sets, in drills 20 lbs. 

j Onion, Sets, in drills . f> to 12 Bushels. 

j Par.snip, in drills 4 to C ibs. 

! Peas, in drills .... 1^ Bushels. 

j Peas, broadcast . . 3 Bu.shels. 

' Potato, (cut tubers) .... . . 10 Bushels. 

i Pumpkin, in hills 4 to 6 Ib-^. 

j Radish, in drills 8 to 10 ft-. 

i Sage, in drills S to 10 lbs. 

I Salsify, in drills .8 to 10 lbs. 

! Spinach, in drills .10 to 12 lbs. 

i Squash, (bush var.) in hills, 4 to G lbs. 
i Squash, (running" ) in hiils, 3 to 4 lbs. 

I Tomato, to transplant i lb. 

I Turnip, in drills M-o 2 lbs. 

; Turnip, broadcast 1 to 2 lbs. 



QUANTITY OF SEEDS REQUIRED FOR A GIVEN NUMBER OF PLANTS. 



Niiraber of Hills or Length of Drills. 

Asparagus 1 oz. to 60 feet of drill. 

Beet ... 1 - 50 

Beans, Dwarf, . . 1 qt, to 100 

Beans, Pole \. .1 qrt. to 150 hills. 

Carrot 1 oz. to 100 feet of drill. 

Cucumber. . 1 oz. to 75 hills. 

Corn 1 qt. to 200 hills. 

Endive .1 oz. to 100 feet of drill. 

Leek 1 " 100 

Melon, Water 1 oz. to 30 hills. 

Melon, Musk 1 "60 " 

Okra 1 oz. to 40 feet of drill. 

Onion .1 "100 

Onion. Sets, small, 1 qrt. to 40 ft. of drill. 
Parsley 1 oz. to 125 feet of drill. 

NoTjE.— The above calculations are 
Summer months, twice the quantity 
amount of plants. 



Niunber of Hii 

Parsnip 1 oz 

Peas 1 qrt 

Pumpkin 

Radish 1 oz 

Salsify 1 

Spinach 1 

Squash 

Turnip 1 oz 

Cabbage 

Cauliflower 

Celery 

Egg Plant 

Lettuce 

Pepper 

Tomato 



Is oi' Length of Drills. 

. to 200 feet ot drill. 

. to 100 

1 oz. to 40 hills. 

. to 100 feet of drill. 
'• 70 
" 100 

. . . . 1 oz. to 75 hills. 

. to 150 feet of drill. 

. 1 oz. to 2000 plants. 
1 •• 2000 " 
1 •• 3000 " 
1 " 1000 " 
1 " 3000 " 

,1 •' 1000 '' 

.1 " 1500 " 



made for the Spring ; if sown during the 
of seed will be reonired for the same 



Table showing amount of several varieties of Grass Seed necessary for an Acre, 
and the number of Pounds in a Bushel. 



to busliel. 

Barley 48 

Blue Grass 14 

Orchard Grass . . 14 

Red Top Grass 14 

Hungarian Grass 48 



No. of lbs. Quantity for 



No. of lbs. Quantity for 



One Acre. 



to Bushel 



2 Bush. I Millet, German 50 

2 •' I Tall Meadow Oat Grass 12 

2 " 1 Rescue Grass 14 

2 " I Timothy 45 

1 " I Italian Rye Grass ..... 20 



I Bu.sh. 
5 " 

u •' 

4 " 

3 - 






For the Southern States. 



Descri|)tive Catalogue of Vegetable Seeds. 



ARTICHOKE. 

Aktichaut (Fr.), Artisohoxce (Ger.^ Alcachofa (Sp.). 




Greeu Globe Artichoke. 

L<a.rgc Crlotoe. This is a very popular vegetable in the South, and 
much esteemed by the native as well as the foreign population from 
the South of Europe. It is extensively cultivated for the New Orleans 
market. It is best propagated from suckers which come up around the 
large plants. Take them off during the fall and early winter months ; 
plant them four feet apart each way. Every fall the ground should 
be manured and spaded or plowed between them. If planted by seed, 
sow them in drills during winter or early spring, three inches apart 
and one foot from row to row ; cover with about one-half inch of earth . 
The following fall the plants can be transplanted and cultivated as re- 
commended above. The seeds I offer are imported by me from Italy, 
and of superior quality. 

ASPARAGUS. 

AspERGE (Fr.), Spargel (Ger.), Espaeagos (Sp.). 

Purple Top. The Asparagus is not extensively cultivated in the 
South ; not that it is not liked well enough, but from the fact that it 
does not succeed as well as in more Nothern latitudes. It seems that 
it is short lived, the roots giving out soon or throwing up very small 
shoots. 

The ground should be well manured and prepared before either 
the roots or seeds are planted. For this climate the sowing of seed is 
preferable. Eoots are generally imported from the North, and I have 



Bicharcl Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



found that the roots raked here, one year old, are as strong as those 
received from the North three years old. Plant the seed in early spring. 
Soak over night in water ; plant in rows, or rather hills, one foot apart 
and two feet between ; put from four to five seeds in each hill : when 
well up thin out to two plants. The following winter, when the stalks 
are cut off, cover with a heavy coat of well rotted manure and a sprink- 
ling of salt; flshbrine will answer the same purpose. In the spring- 
fork in the manure between the rows and keep clean of weeds. The 
same treatment should be repeated every year. The bed should not 
be cut before being three years established. Care must be taken not 
to cut the stalks too soon in the fail of the year— not until we have had 
a frost. If cut before it will cause the roots to throw up young shoots, 
which will weaken them. 

BUSH BEANS. 

CULTURE. 

Place in rows eighteen inches apart. Plant from end of February ; 
and for succession every two or three weeks to May. During June 
and July Bush Beans planted in this latitude will not produce much. 
August and September are good months in which to plant again ; they 
will produce abundantly till killed by the frost. Do not cover the 
seeds more than two inches. 

POLE BEANS. 

Lima Beans should not be planted before the ground has become 
warm in spring. Strong poles ought to be set in the ground from four 
to six feet apart and the ground drawn around them before the seed 
is planted. It is alwa^'s best to plant after a rain and with the eye of 
the bean down. The other varieties can be planted flat, and not more 
than three to four feet apart, and hilled after they are up. Do not 
cover the seeds more than two inches ; one inch is enough for the 
Southern Prolific. 

BEANS— 'D^^AEF, SxAP OR Bush.) 
. Haricots (Ft.), Bohne (Ger.), Frijolexaxo iBp.). 



White Kidney. 

Red Speckled French. 

Early China Red-Eye. 



Extra Early Six Weeks, or Xew- 

ington Wonder. 
Early Valentine Red Speckled. 
Early Mohawk Six Weeks. j Red Kidney. 

Early Yellow Six Weeks. 1 Dwarf Golden Wax mew). 

German Dwarf Wax. | 

Extra Early Six llf^eelis, or IVe^viiigtoii Tf^onder, is very 
early, but the pods are small and round. Good for family use. ' -- 

Early Taleiitiiie, one of the best varieties ; pods round, tender 
and quite productive ; not much planted for the market. Excellent for 
shipping. 

Early MoliaAvk Six Tl^eeks. This is a long podded variety, 
and very hardy. It is used to a large extent for the market for the 
first planting ; very productive. 



For the Southern States. 25 



Early Yellow Six liVeeliS. This is the most ])opular sort 
iimong maket-gardeners. Pods flat and long ; a very good bearer. 

Oerinaii Dwarf Wax. A new variety which is unsurpassed 
as a snap bean. Pods are of a wax color and have no strings ; quite 
productive. Has come into general cultivation ; cannot be too highly 
recommended. 

llYliite Kidney. A good strong growing variety, not much 
planted. 

Red Speckled Freiicli is another strong growing variety, 
planted a good deal for the New Orleans market as a second crop, 
being about ten days later than the Mohawk and Yellow Six Weeks. 
It is hardy and productive. 

Early China Red-Eye. Early and of good quality, but not 
very popular. 

Red Kidney. This variety is largely planted for the New Orleans 
market. It is a coarse growing variety, and much used for shelling 
when the pods turn yellow, so that the beans are well developed but 
soft yet. 

Dwarf Oolden l>Vax. (New.) A dwarf variety with flat pods, 
longer than the Dwarf German Wax ; entirely stringless ; and white, 
mottled with purplish red. This variety will come into general cul- 
tivation, and will in time take the place of the black seeded Wax, 
being earlier and more productive. 

None of the kinds I had on trial turned out to be of any merit, 
except two, one a Wax Bean, "Golden Butter Wax ;" seeds black, but 
the pods flat like the Golden Wax with much brighter color ; early and 
good bearer. The other variety, sent to me under the name of "Best 
of All," really deserves this name. It is a green podded kind, resem- 
bling the Crease Back, very prolific, no strings and w^ell flavored. Un- 
fortunately the early frosts East where I have them grown destroyed 
almost the entire crop, and I am not able to state whether I will have 
any for sale. 

BEANS.— Pole or Eunning. 

Haricots a Eames (Fr.), Stangen-Bohnen (Ger.), Frltol Vastago (Sp. ). 



German Wax or Butter. 
Southern Prolific. 
Crease Back. 



Large Lima. 
Carolina or Sewee. 
Horticultural or Wren's Egg. 
Dutch Case Knife. 

Liar|?e liima. A well known and excellent variety. It is the 
best shell bean known. Should have rich ground, and plenty room 
to grow. 

Carolina or Sewee. A variety similar to the Lima; the only 
difference is, the seeds and pods are smaller. It is generally culti- 
vated, being more productive than the Large Lima. 

Horticultural or If ren's £§*§*« does not grow very strong, 
bears well, pods about six inches long, which are roundish and very 
tender. 
4 



26 Blchard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden MamiaJ 



Dutch Case Kiiife. A very good pole beau; it is early; pods 
broad and long, somewhat turned towards the end. 

Oeruiaii l>Vax. This is a fine variety, and has the same good 
qualities as the German Dwarf Wax. Pods have a waxy appearance : 
very succulent and tender. 

Southern Prolific. Xo variety will continue longer in bearing 
than this. It stands the heat of the summer better than any other, 
and is planted to succeed the other kinds. It is a very strong grower ; 
l^ods about" seven inches long, flat ; seeds dark yellow or rather light 
brown. It is the standard variety for the Xew Orleans market for 
late spring and summer. 

Crease Back. A variety' of Pole Beans which has been culti- 
vated in the South for a long time, but has never come into the trade. 
It is an excellent bean, earlier than the "Southern Prolific;" pods 
round, with a crease in the back, from which the name. It is a good 
grower, bears abundantly, and if shipped will keep better than most 
other kinds. ■ It sells better in the spring than any other for shipping- 
purposes ; and when in season, it can not be surpassed. For early 
summer, the Southern Prolific is preferable, standing the heat better. 
I had some grown for me this season, and offer a limited supply. 

ENGLISH BEANS. 

Feve de Maeais (Fr. ), Pfff-Bohne (Cxer. ), Haba Comun (Sp.j. 

Broad IrTiaidsor. Not so much cultivated here as in some parts 
of Europe. It is much liked by the people of the Southern part of 
Europe. Ought to be planted during Noveinber : as if planted in the 
spring they will not produce much. 

BEETS. 

Betrave (Fr.), Runkelruebe (Ger. ). Eemolacha (Sp.l. 



Egyptian Red Turnip. 
Long Red Mangel Wurzel. 
White French Sugar. 



Extra Early or Bassano. 

Simon's Early Red Turnip. 

Early Blood Turnip. 

Long Blood. Silver or Swiss Chard. 

Half Long Blood. ' 

Culture, 

The ground for beets should be rich and well spaded or plowed. 
Sow in drills twelve to eighteen inches apart, cover the seed about 
one inch deep. Thin them out when about a month old to four or six 
inches apart. In this latitude beets are sown from January till the end 
of April, and from the middle of July till the middle of November ; in 
fact, some market gardeners sow some every month in the year. In 
the summer and fall it is well to soak the seeds over night, and roll in 
plaster before sowing. 

Extra EarJy or Bassauo, is the earliest variety, but not po])- 
ular on account of its color, which is almost white when boiled. Earli- 
ness is not of so much value here, where there are beets sown and 
brought to the market the whole year round. In the North it is differ- 
ent, where the first crop of beets in the market in spring will bring a 
V>etter price than the varieties which mature later. 



For the Southern States. 



27 





Simon's Early Red Turnip Beet. 



Early Blood Turnip Beet. 



Simon's Early Red Turnip. This is earlier than the Blood 
Turnip, smooth skin and of light red color, planted a good deal by 
the market-gardeners about New Orleans. 

Early Blood Turnip. The most popular variety for market 
purposes as well as family use. It is of a dark red color, and very 
tender. 

Long: Blood. Is not quite so tender as the foregoing variety ; it 
is ]iot planted at all for the market, and very little for family use. In 
the North it is chiefly planted for winter use ; here we have Turnip 
Beets the whole winter from the 
garden ; therefore it has not the 
same value. 

Half liOng^ Blood. A very 

dark red variety of a half long 
shape ; a good variety for family 
use. 

Egyptian Red Turnip. 

This is a new variety sent out by 
Benary some years ago. It is 
very early, tender, deep red and 
of Turnip shape. Leaves of this 
variety are smaller than on 
others. The seeds are also much 
smaller. I recommend it and 
consider it a good acquisition. 

Eong Red Mang^ei H'ur- 
zel. This is raised for stock; 
it grows to a large size. Here 
in the South where stock is not 
stg^bled during the winter, the 
raising of root crops is much 
neglected. Being very profitable 
for their food it ought to be 
more cultivated. 




Egyptian Bed Turnip Beet 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 





White French Sugar Beet. 



Silver Beet or S-\viss Chard. 



White French Sugar, is nsed the same as the foregoing; not 
much planted. 

Silver Beet or Swiss Chard. This variety is cultivated for 
its large, succulent leaves, which are used for the same purposes as 
Spinach, It is very popular in the New Orleans market. 

BORECOLE OR CURLED KALE. 

Chou-vert (Fr.), Gruner Kohl (Ger. i, Breton (Sp.). 
Owarf Oerinan Oreens. 

A vegetable highly esteemed in Northern part of Europe, but very 
little cultivated in this country. It requires frost to make it good for 
the table. Treated the same as Cabbage. 



BROCCOLI. 

Chou Brocoli (Fr.), Brocoli Spargel-Kohl (Ger.), Broouli (Sp.). 
Purple Cape. 

Kesembles the Cauliflower, but not forming such compact heads, 
and not quite so white, being of a greenish cast. We raise such^'fine 
Cauliflower here that very little Broccoli is raised. 

The Purple Cape is the most desirable variety; cultivated the 
same as Half Early Cauliflower; further North than New Orleans, 
where Cauliflower does not succeed, the Broccoli may be substituted, 
being more hardj^ 



For the Southern States. 



29 



BRUSSELS SPROUTS, 

Chou de Bruxelles (Fr. ), Rosen or Sprossen Kohl (Ger.), 
Breton de Bruselas (Si).). 




Brussels Sprouts. 

A vegetable cultivated the same as the Cabbage, but very little 
known here. The small heads which appear along the ui)per part of 
the stalk bet-ween the leaves, make a fine dish when well prepared. 



CABBAGE. 

Chou Pomme (Fr. ), Kopfkohl (Ger.), Repollo (Sp.). 



Early York. 
Early Large York. 
Early Sugar Loaf. 
Early Large Oxheart. 
Early Winningstadt. 
Jersey Wakefield. 
Early Flat Dutch. 
Early Drumhead. 
Large Flat Brunswick. 



Improved Early Summer. 
Improved Large Late Drumhead. 
Frotscher's Superior Late 

Flat Dutch. 
Bed Dutch (for Pickling). 
Green Globe Savoy. 
Early Dwarf Savoy. 
Drumhead Savoy. 
St. Denis or Chou Bonneuil. 



Culture. 

Cabbage requires a strong, good soil, and should be heavily man- 
ured. To raise large Cabbage without good soil and Avithout working 
the plants well, is an impossibility. Cabbage is sown here almost in 
every month of the year, but the seed for a main crop should be sown 
from July to September. Some sow earlier, but July is time enough. 
For a succession, seed can be sown till November. Early varieties 
are sown during winter and early spring. Cabbage is a very impor- 
tant crop and one of the best paying for the market-gardener. It re- 



30 



Richard Fr'otficher's Ahnanac and Garden Manual 



quires more work and attention tlian most people are willing to give, 
to raise cabbage plants during the months of July and August. I 
have found, by careful observation, that plants raised in August are 
the surest to head here. The most successful gardeners in raising 
cabbage plants, sow the seeds thinly in seed-beds, and water several 
times during the day ; in fact, the seed bed never is allowed to get dry 
from the sowing of the seed till large enough to transplant. There is 
no danger' in doing this of scalding the plants, as many would sui)- 
pose ; but just the reverse ; the plants thrive well, and so treated will 
be less liable to be attacked by the cabbage-fly, as they are too often 
disturbed during the day. 

Early York:. This is an early variety, but very little gTown 
here, except for family use. As we have cabbage heading up almost 
the whole year, it has not the same value as in Northern climates, 
where the first cabbage in spring brings a good price. 

I^arije Torli. About two to three weeks later than the above, 
forming hard heads ; not grown for the market. Recommended for 
family use. 

Early Su^ai* L.oaf. Another pointed variety, with spoon 
shaped leaves ; sown in early spring for an early summer Cabbage. 

Early I^ar^re Oxlieart. An excellent variety, which is later 
than the Large York, and well adapted for sowing in fall or early 
spring. 





Early York Cabbage. 



Larse York C:ibbas;e. 





Early Large Osbeart 



Early Winuiiigstadt 



For the Southern States. 



:m 




Green Globe Savoy. 



Early Dwarf Savoy, 




Frotscher's Superior Lavp^o Flat Dutch. 



32 Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Early "Wimiiiiiy^stadt. This is a very line solid-heading vari- 
ety ; pointed and of good size, of tlie same season as the Oxheart. It is 
very good for family use. It does not suit the market, as no pointed 
cabbage can be sold to any advantage in the New Orleans Market. 

Jersey Wakefield. Very popular in the North, but little plan- 
ted here. It is of medium sizp and heads up well. 

Early Flat I>utcli. An intermediate variety between the early 
pointed and late varieties. It is not, on an average, as heavy as the 
Oxheart or Winningstadt, but, if raised for the market, more salable 
on account of being flat. Very good variety for family use. 

Early I>riiBiitiead. A similar variety to the above; a little 
earlier, and not making as many leaves, can be plaiited close. A good 
early sx)ring Cabbage. 

Earg-e Flat Bruais^viek. This is a late German variety, intro- 
duced by me about fifteen years ago. It is an excellent variety, and 
when Avell headed up the shape of it is a true type of a Premium Flat 
Dutch Cabbage. It requires very rich ground, and should be sown 
early, as it is a little more susceptible of frost than the Superior Flat 
Dutch. It is well adapted for shipping, being very hard, and does not 
wilt so quick as others. At Frenier, along the Jackson Railroad, this 
is the kind principally planted, and is preferred over all other varie- 
ties. The people living there plant nothing else except cabbage for 
the New Orleans market, and have tried nearly all highly recommen- 
ded varieties, and this is their choice. At that place the seeds are 
sown in October and November ; the bulk of the Cabbage raised there is 
shipped North in April and May. 

Improved Early Suxnsiier. This cabbage is of recent intro- 
duction. It is not quite so large as the Brunswick, but earlier ; for fall 
it can be sovv^n in August; for spring, in November, and as late as Jan- 
uary. It heads up very uniform and does not produce many outside 
leaves. The seed I offer is of the best strain cultivated. 

Improved Earg-e Eate I>r«imliead. Fine large variety ; should 
be sown early in the fall for winter, or during December and January 
for late spring use ; it will stand more cold weather than the Brunswick. 

Superior Eate Flat I>utc1i. This is the most popular variety 
for winter cabbage, and cultivated by almost every gardener who 
plants for the New Orleans market. My stock is of superior quality, 
and I venture to say that seventy-five per cent, of all cabbage sold in 
the New Orleans market are of seeds which have been obtained from 
my store. During winter and spring specimens, which are brought as 
samples to my establishment, weighing from fifteen to twenty-five 
pounds, can be frequently seen. In regard to the time of planting see 
remarks under head of cabbage, in the directions for planting for July. 
I have tried seed of the Flat Dutch from different growers, but have 
found none yet to equal the stock I have been selling for years and 
which is raised for me by contract. 

Red I>ute8i. Mostly used for pickling or salads. Very little 
cultivated. 

Oreen Criobe Savoy. Medium sized heads, not very hard, but 
all the leaves can be used. This and the following varieties are of fine 
flavor, and preferred by many over the other varieties. 



For the Southern States. 33 



Early Dvi^ai'f Savoy. Heads rather small, but solid ; leaves very 
curled and succulent, of a dark green color. Very fine for family gar- 
den. 

I>i*iiiii1iead Savoy. Leaves are wrinkled, but not quite so much 
as the two foregoing kinds. It grows to a good size with large round- 
ish heads. 

St. l>eiiis or CEiou Soii^ieuil. This is a very popular French 
variety for the market as well as family garden. It grows to a large 
size, but requires a good season and good ground to make it head well. 
It should be sown during August and September for winter use, and 
in December and Janua.ry for iate spring use. Some market-garden- 
ers plant this variety in preference to any other, and some of the finest 
heads of cabbage offered in this market are of this variety. 



CAULIFLOWER. 

Choufleuk (Ft.), Blumenkohl (Ger.), Coliflor (Sp.). 



Extra Early Paris. 

Half Early Paris. 

Large Asiatic. 

Early Erfurt. 

Le Normands (short stemmed). 



Early Italian Giant. 
Late Italian Giant. 
Imperial (Newj. 
Large Algiers. 
NoN Plus Ultra. 



This is one of the finest vegetables grown, and succeeds well in the 
neighborhood of New Orleans. Large quantities are raised on the sea 
coast in the neighborhood of Barataria Bay. The two Italian varieties 
are of excellent quality, growing to a large size, and are considered hard- 
ier than the German and French varieties. I have had specimens brought 
to the store, raised from seed obtained from me, weighing sixteen 
pounds. The ground for planting Cauliflower should be very rich. 
They thrive best in rich sandy soil, and require plenty of moisture 
during the formation of the head. The Italian varieties should be sown 
from April till July ; the latter month and June is the best time to sow 
the Early Giant. During August, September and October, the Le 
Normands, Half Early Paris, Asiatic and Erfurt can be sown. The 
Half Early Paris is very popular, but the other varieties are just as 
good, and the Asiatic is a little hardier than the rest. For spring crop 
the Italian kinds do not answer, but the early French and German va- 
rieties can be sown at the end of December and during January, in a 
bed protected from frost, and may be transplanted, during February 
and as late as March, into the open ground. If we have a favorable 
season and not too dry, they will be very fine ; but if the heat sets in 
soon the flowers will not obtain the same size as those obtained from 
seeds sown in fall, and which head during December and 'January. 

Extra Early Paris, the earliest variety, heads small ; very ten- 
der. 

Half Early Paris. The most popular in the New Orleans mar- 
ket. Heads of good size, w^hite and compact. 
5 



34 



Richard FroUcher's Ahnanac and Garden Manual 




Large Asiatic (^'uulifiower. 

L<ar§:e Asiatic, similar to the above, but grows stronger, and is 
hardier. Quite a favorite variety with those w^ho know it. 

Early Erfwrt. This variety is of more dwarfish growth than 
the two former. Heads white and of good size. Heads with certainty. 




Le Normands short steramed CanHflower. 

Ee Noruiaiids is aTrench variety, and hirgely cultivated In^i-e. 
It stands more dry weather than the other varieties, and has 1-arge 
and inire white heads. Not so popular as the Half Early Paris in this 
market, but there is no good reason why it should not be, a*s it is an 
excellent variety in every respect; stands the heat better than any 
other. 

Earg-e Alg:iei*s. A French A'ariety of the same season as tlie Le 
Normands, but a surer cropper. It is one of the best kinds. 



L 



For the Soiitherii State 




Early Italian Giant Cauliflower. 

Earfty ItaliaBft Oiant. Very large fine sort, not quite so late as 
the late Italian, and almost as large. The heads are quite large, white 
and compact, and of delicious flavor. Kecommend it to all who have 
\ii>t tried it. When sown at the proper season it will head with cer- 
tainty, and will not fail to give satisfaction. 

JLatc Italiaai Oiaaat. This is the largest of all the Cauliflowers. 
It is grown to a coiisiderable extent in the neighborhood of New Or- 
leans. It is very large and compact ; should not be sown later than 
June, as it takes from seven to nine months before it heads. 

lB»fi>erial. (New.) A variety from France, very similar to the 
Le Normands, perlia})S a little earlier ; very good ; recommend it highly. 

Woai PIii!^ UBtra. A new Italian variety, four weeks earlier than 
the Early Italian Giant. Very highly recommended. 



CARROT. 

Carotte (Fr,), Moeheeor Gelbe EuEBE(Ger.), Zanahoria (Sp. 



Early Scarlet Horn. 
Half Long Scarlet French. 
Improved Long Orange. 



Long Ked, without core. 
St. Valerie. 
Half Long Luc. 



Requires a sandy loam, vveil manured, and deeply spaded up. 
Should be sown in drills ten to twelve inches apart, so the plants can 
be worked after they are up. Gardeners here generally sow them 
broad-cast, and often the roots are small from being crowded too much 
together. 

Early ScarBet Morn. A short stump rooted variety, of medium 
size, very ea.rly and of fine flavor. Not cultivated for the market. 

Malf Eoiagr Frencli Scarlet. This is the most popular variety, 
and extensively grown for the market, as well as for family use. It is 
a little later than the Early Horn, but much larger; bright scarlet in 
color, and of fine flavor. 



36 



Fiicliard Frot seller's Almanae and Garden 2IanuaI 




Early Scarlet Horn Carrot. Half Long Luc Carrot. Half Long Trench 

Scarlet Carrot. 



>'^ 














CaiTot, Long Eed. without core. 



Carrot. St. Valerie. 



For the Southern States. 



37 



Iliilf .L.oiig' Line, This is a new variety from France. It is as 
early as any previously mentioned, but stump rooted and larger. It 
is very smooth and of a fine color. 

Improved Long* Orang"©. This is an old variety, roots long 
and of deep orange color. It is not much cultivated in this section, 
and the flavor is not so fine as that of the two preceding kinds. Valu- 
able for field culture. 

fiOBig- I^ed, without core. A new variety from France, which is 
of cylindrical shape, very smooth, bright scarlet color, and of fine fla- 
vor ; has no heart or core. It is not quite so early as the Half Long, 
but more productive. Consider it a first class variety for the table, 
and one that will come into general cultivation when better known. 

Sf. Valerie. A new variety from France, bright red in color ; a 
little larger and longer than the Half Long French, and stronger in the 
leaves. This is one of the finest carrots, and will take the place of the 
Half Long in the course of time. It is very smooth. 

, CELERY. 

Celehi (Fr.), Sellerte (Ger.), Apio (Sp.). 

DwAEF Large Eibbed. 

Cutting. 



Large White Solid. 
Sandringham's Dwarf White. 

TURNIP-KOOTED. 

Sow in May and June for early 
transplanting, and in August and 
September for a later crop. Sow 
thinly and shade during the hot 
months. Transplant, when the 
plants are six inches high, into 
trenches about four inches deep, 
nine wide, and two and a half 
feet apart, made very rich by 
digging in rotten manure. Plants 
should be from six to eight inches 
apart. When planted out during 
the hot months, the trenches 
require to be shaded, wdiich 
is generally done by spread- 
ing cotton cloth over them; 
lantanais will answer the same 
purpose. Celery requires plenty 
of moisture, and watering with 
soapsuds, or liquid manure, will 
benefit the plants a great deal. 
When tall enough it should be 
earthed up to blanch to make it 
fit for the table. 

I^arge IVhite Solid is the 
variety mostly grown. Is white, 
solid and crisp. 

Sandoiig^hain I> n^ a r f 
IrVliite. This is a new variety 
of excellent quality, somewhat 



(New.) 




Large White ttolid Celery. 



38 



Bichard Frotscher\'i Almanac and Garden Manual 




Celeriac, oi Turnip-Rooted Celery. 




taller than the Incomparable 
Dwarf. It has become very poi >- 
iilar with the market gardeners. 
Celeriac, oi'Tiii'isipa'ooted 
Celery, is very popular in some 
parts of Europe, but hardly cul- 
tivated here. It should be sown 
in the fall of the year, and trans- 
planted six inches apart, in rovs-s 
one foot a.part. When the roots 
have obtained a g'ood size, they 
are boiled, scraped off, sliced and 
dressed with vinegar, etc., as a 
salad. 

I>\%aFi" Larg^e Kibf>ed. 
This kind was brought here sev- 
eral years ago from France. It 
is short, but very thick-ribbed, 
solid and of fine flavor. -One of 
the very best. 

Celery for !!!»oup. This is 
sown in the spring of the year, 
broad-cast, to be used for sea- 
soning, the same as Parslev. 



Dwarf, Large Eibbed [new]. 



For the Sou them States. 39 



CHERVIL. 

Cerfktjil (Fr.), Kerbelkraut (Ger.). 

An aromatic plant used a good deal for seasoning, especially in 
oyster soup, and is often cut between Lettuce M'hen served as a salad. 
In the North this vegetable is A^ery little known, but in this section 
there is hardly a garden where it is not found. Sow broadcast during 
fall for winter ajid spring, and in January and February forsummei' 
use. 

COLLARDS. 

A kind of Cabbage which does not head, but the leaves are used the 
same as other Cabbage. Not so popular as in former years, and very 
little planted. 

CORN SALAD. 

Mache, Doucet (Fr.), Acker Salat (Ger.), Valeriana (Sp.). 

Broad-leaved Corn Salad is the variety generally cultivated. It is 
used as a salad during the winter and early spring months. Should 
be s own broad-cast during fall and winter, or in drills nine inches 
apart. 

CORN.— Indian. 

Mais (Fr.), Welschkorn (Ger.), Maiz (Sp.j. 

Extra Early Dwarf Sugar. I Golden Dent Gourd Seed. 

Adam's Extra Early. ! Early Yellow Canada. 

Early Sugar or Sweet. j Large White Flint. 

Stowel's Evergreen Sugar. | Blunt's Prolific Field. (New.) 

Plant in hills about, three feet apart, drop four to five seeds and 
thin out to two or three. Where the ground is strong the Adam's Ex- 
tra Early and Crosby's Sugar can be planted in hills two and a half feet 
apart, as these two varieties are more dwarfish than the other vari- 
eties. Plant for a succession from February till June. 

Extra Early or Crosby's I>\rarf SiJig^ar. This is a very early 
variety and of excellent quality. Ears small, but very tender. It is 
not so extensively planted as it deserves to be. 

Adam's Extra EarSy, the most popular variety with market 
gardeners for first planting. It has no fine table qualities, but as it 
grows to a good size, and is matured in about forty days from time of 
planting, it meets with ready sale in the market, and for these reasons 
gardeners prefer it. 

EarBy Sug^ar or New Eng^land. A long eight-rowed variety, 
which succeeds the Extra Early kinds. Desirable variety. 

Stowel's Evergreew Sugar. This is the best of all Sugar 
Corn. It is not an Ccirly Corn, but the ears are of large size, and are 
well filled. It remains green longer than any other variety, and is 
cpiite productive. The cultivation of this excellent cereal, as well as 
all other Sugar Corn, is much neglected, yet why people will plant com- 
mon field-corn for table use, considering size instead of quality, I can- 
not under.stand. 



Fii'-harcl Fj^otschei-'s Almanac and Garden ^Tanual 



,mp. 




'ii:S^^i 





Sxr:a Early S-gar Cctz. Early Sugar or New England Com. Eyergreci i-gar Con:. 

Goldeu Deut Oourd §eecl. A field Tariety Tvliiek is very pro- 
cluotive ai the'Xorth. It makes very fine Corn South, but has to be 
planted here several years in succession before it attains perfection, 
as diu'ing the first year the ears are not well covered by the husk, as 
it is the case with ail Northern varieties. "^Then selected and planted 
here for a few years, it becomes acclimated and makes an excellent 
Corn with large, fine ears, grain deep and cob of medium size. 

Early TelloTV Canada. A long, eight-rowed variety. It is 
very early, and i- phinted in both field and garden. 

L,arge TOiite Flint. A very popular variety with gardeners 
and amateui's. It is planted here for table use principally, but like 
rhe G-olden Dent makes an excellent variety for field culture after it 
has been planted here for two or three years. 

Blout's Prolific Field Com. iXewi. This is a very excellent 
variety, either for the field or for the table. It is very prolific, pro- 
ducing from four to six ears of corn. They are of medium size, but 
well filled and heay\-. It is second early. 

CRESS. 

Ceessox Fr. . Keesse Crer. . Beseo Sp. . 

ITsed for salad during winter and spring. Sow broad-cast or in 
drills six inches apart. 

Curled or Pepper Grass. Xot much used in this section. 

Broad-ieaved. This variety is extensively cultivated for the 
market. It is sown from early fall to late spring. The leaves resem- 
ble Water Cress ; a variety* which does not succeed well here. Is con- 
sidered a verv wholesome dish. 



For the SoidUerti States. 



41 



CUCUMBER. 

CoNcoMBRE (Fr.), GuRKE fGei'.), Pepino (Sp.). 



Improved Early White Spine 
Early Frame. 
Long Green Turkey. 



Early Cluster. 

Long Green White Spine. 

Gherkin or Burr (for pickling). 

Cucumbers need ricli soil. Plant in hills from three to four feet 
apart ; the hills should be made rich with well decomposed manure, 
and eight to ten seeds should be planted in each hill, and covered 
about one-half inch deep ; when well up thin out to four plants in the 
hill. Hoe between the hills till the vines meet. When the spring is 
dry the plants have to be watered, else they do i\ot keep in bearing 
long. They can be planted from March till July. A great many cu- 
cumbers are planted here in February, or even sooner, and are pro- 
tected by small boxes with a pane of glass on top. These boxes are 
removed during the day, and put back in the evening. When days 
are cloudy and cold, the plants are kept covered. 

Improved Early llVIiite Spine. 

This is the most popular variety. It is 

of medium size, light 

green, covered with 

white spines, and 

turns white when 
ripe. The best variety for shipping. Of late 
years it is used by most gardeners for forcing as 
well as out-door culture. It is very productive. 

EarSy Frame.. Another early variety, but 
not so popular as the foregoing kind. It is deep 
green in color, but turns yellow very quickly ; 
therefore gardeners do not plant it much. 

Eong: Oreeai Tiirfeey. A long variety, 
attaining a length of from fifteen to eighteen 
inches when well grown. Very fine and produc- 
tive. 




Improved Early White Spine. 





Early Cluster 

prickly, and bears in clusters 



Early Frame. 
Early, short and 







Early Cluster. 
6 



West India Gherkin. 



42 



Eichard F7^otscher''s Almanac and Garden 2Tanual 



liOug: OreeM T%"liite Spine, This is a variety selected from an 
imported forcing cucumber. It is good for forcing or open ground : 
very i-)roductiYe, keeps its green color, and has few vines. A limited 
supply offered. 

Tl^est India Crlierliin. This is an oval variety, small in size. 
It is used for pickling when young and tender. When grown to its 
full size it can be stewed with meat. In fa<:'t, this is the only use made 
of it about .New Orleans. 

EGG-PLANT. 

AUBEEGINE (Tr. ), ElERPFLAXZE iGer.), BeREXCtEXA (Sp. !. 

The seed shoulH be sown in hot-beds in the early part of January. 
When a couple of inches high they should be transplanted into another 
frame, so that the plants may become strong and robust. When vrarm 
enough, generally during March, the plants can be placed in the open 
ground, about two and a half feet apart. This vegetable is very pop- 
ular in the South, and extensively cultivated. 





Large Purple Egg-Plant. 

L<ar§re Purple ©i' New Orleasis Market. This is the only 
kind grown here ; it is large, oval in shape and of a dark purple color, 
and very productive. Southern grown seed of this, as of a good many 
other tropical or sub-tropical vegetables, is preferable to Northern 
seed, as it Avill germinate more readily, and the plant will last longer 
during the hot season. 

END1VE» 

Chicoeee (Fr.), Endivien (Ger.), Endibia (Sp.). 
A salad plant which is very popular and much cultivated for the 
market, principally for summer use. It can be sown in drills a foot 
apart, and, when the plants are well up, thinned out till about eight 
inches apart. Or it can be sown broad-cast thinly and transplanted 
the same as Lettuce. When the leaves are large enough, say about 
eight inches long, tie them up for blanching, to make them fit for 
the table. This can only be done in dry weather, otherwise the leaves 
are apt to rot. For summer use do not sow before the end of March, 
as, if sown sooner, the plants will run into seed Yery early. Sow 



For tJic Sontheni States. 



•i3 




Green Curled Endive. 



I'or- a succession during- 
the spring and summer 
months. For winter use 
sow in Soptembe]" and 
October. 

OreeiaCjau'lecl. Is the 
most desiral:)le kind, as it 
bears more heat than tlie 
f o 1 1 o w i n .!>• sort, and the 
favorite market variety. 

£xtra Fine Ciirlecl. 
Does not ^'row quite so 
hirge as the foregoing, and is more ai)t to decay, w^hen there is a wet 
summer. Better adapted for winter. 

Br®ad-lcavecl or Escarolle. Maices a fine salad when well 
grown and blaiu-hed, esi)ecially for summer. 

KOHL-RABS, OR TURNSP- ROOTED CABBAGE. 

Chou Navet (Fr.), Kohl-Rabi (Ger.), Col de Nabo (Sp.). 
This vegetable is very popular wdth the European population of 
this city, and largely cultivated here. It is used for soups, or prepared 
in the same manner as Cauli- 
flower. For late fall and winter ^^ /^i'^^ 
use it should bo sown from tlie ( \j ^ \ ^ 7^\ 4y^ 
end of July till the middle ^C ";:1^^ \ ^\ d\ V^ v*^ I 
of October; for spring use, \ -^^ \ ^viS^^'^'TK.Xxr , 
during January and February. 
When the young plants are one 
month old transplant them in 
row^s one foot ai)art, and about 
the same distance in the rows. 
They also grovf finely if sown 
broad-cast and thinned out 
when young, so that the plants 
are not too crow^ded; or they 
may be sown in drills and cul- 
tivated the same as Rut a 
Bagas. 

Early l¥iiitc Vieiaiia. 

The finest variety of all, and 
the only kind I keep. It is 
early, forms a smooth bulb, and 
has few small leaves. The so- 
called large White or Green is 
not desirable. 







Earlv White Vienna Kohl-rabi. 



LEEK. 

PoiREAU (Fr.), Laugh (Ger.j, Puero (Sp.). 
A species of Onion, highly esteemed for flavoring soups. Should l)e 
sown broad-cast and tra.nsplanted, w^hen about six to eight inches high, 
into row^s a foot aitart and six inches apart in the rows. Should be 



44 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



White Pakis Coss. 

Large India Curled. 

Perpignan. 

Improved Large Passion. 



planted at least four inches deep. They require to be well cultivated 
in order to secure large roots. Sow in October for winter and spring 
use, and in January and February for summer. 

Liarg^e I^ondoBi Flagr. Is the most desirable kind, and that most 
generally grown. 

I<ar§fe Carentaii. This is a new French variety which grows to 
a very large size. 

LETTUCE. 

Laitue (Fr.j, Lattich (Ger.), Lechuga (Sp.). 

Early Cabbage or White Butter- 
head. 
Improved Eoyal Cabbage. 
Brown Dutch Cabbage. 
Drumhead Cabbage. 

Lettuce is sown here during the whole year by the market-gardener. 
Of course, it takes a good deal of labor to produce this vegetable during 
our hot summer months. For directions how to sprout the seed during 
that time, see "Work for June. " The richer and better the ground the 
larger the head will be. No finer Lettuce is grown anywhere than in 
New Orleans during fall and Spring. The seed should be sown broad- 
cast, and, when large enough, planted out in rows a foot apart, and from 
eight to ten inches apart in the rows. Some kinds grow larger than 
others, for instance Butterhead will not require as much space as Drum- 
head or Perpignan. 

Early Catofoag^e or l%^Mte Butter. 
An early variety forming a solid head, but 
not quite so large as some others. It is the 
best kind for family use, to sow during fall 
and early spring, as it is very early and of ~ .^-^'^^r^'-iy^^^' 

Early Cabbage or Wliite Butter. 




good flavor. 




White Paris Coss Lettuce. 



Perpignan Lettuce, 



Fo7' the Soutliern States. 



45 



Iiiaproved Koyal CabHiage. This is the most popular variety 
in this State. Heads liL>ht green, of large size, and about two Aveeks 
later than the White Butter. It is very tender and erisp ; can be sown 
later in the spring than the foregoing kind, and does not run into seed 
so cpiickly. 

Brown Dutch Cal>bas:e. A very hardy kind, forms a solid 
head, not so poitular as many other kinds. 

I>B'iiaiihcacl € a 1> 1> a g: e. 
An excellent spring variety 
forming large heads, the outer 
leaves curled. 

"White Paris Coss. This 
is very i)opular with the New- 
Orleans market-gardeners, as it 
is the favorite with the French 
population. It grows to i^erf ac- 
tion and forms large, fine heads, 
particularly in the spring of the 
year. Drumhead Cabbage Lettuce. 

liarge India Curled. A variety highly esteemed in the North 
for summer planting, but very little cultivated here. 

Perpig'uan. A fine German vayiety which forms large light green 
heads and which stands the heat better than the Koyal. It is much cul- 
tivated for the market, as it thrives well when sown during the latter 
end of spring. 

Improved l.arg:e Passioai. This is a large Cabbage Lettucf.' 
from California ; it attains a large size, grows slowly, but heads very 
hard. It does better here during late autumn and winter than in 
summer, as it c^innot stand the heat. If sown late in the fall and 
transplanted during winter, it grows to very large heads, hard and firm. 
It is the kind shipped from here in the spring. 




MELON. — Musk or Canteloupe. 
•Melon (Fr.), Melon e (G-er.), Melon (Sp.). 



Netted Nutmeg. 
Netted Citron. 
Pine Apple. 



Early White Japan. 
Persian or Cass aba. 
New Orleans Market. 



Melons require a rich sandy loam. If the ground Is not rich enough 
a couple of shovels full of rotted manure should be mixed into each 
hill, which ought to be from five to six feet apart ; drop ten or twelve 
seeds, and when the plants have two or three rough leaves, thin out 
to three or four plants. Canteloupes are cultivated very extensively in 
the neighborhood of New Orleans, and the quality is very fine ; far 
superior to those raised in the North. Some gardeners ]>lant during 
February and cover with boxes, the same as described for Cucumbers. 
When Melons are ripening too much rain will impair the flavor of the 
fruit. 



m 



liichard FrotscJier's Alma)iac and Garden Manual 



WetteiS Nutmeg Melon. Small oval melon,, rougMj n-e^tftl, 
early and fine flavor. 

Melted Cfltroti Caiifeloispe. This variety is larg-er tlian tlie 
foregoing kind ; it is more rounded in shape, medium size and xaiighly 
netted. 

Fine Apple CsaifileloHpe* A medium sized early Yariet3', oval 
in shape, and of very fine liavor. 

Early .Wlilte JEspaai Caaifelowpe. An early kmd, of creaniish 
vy-hite eolor, very svreet, a.nd of medium size. 

Persian or Ca$i»e:l>a« A large variety of oval shape,, delicate 
flavor. The rind of this kind is very thin, whieli is a disadvuntage in 
handling, and prevents it from being i)lantixl for the market. Yeiy ^.uy 
for familv use. 




S, e-Kc,l 



NoTK.— The above cut. represents the New OrleaDs Melon ; it has aeea taken from a 
coimuon specimfra grown by one of my customers, v,bo raises the seed of thic variety 
for me. 

New Oi'leaMS Marfeet. A large species of the citron kind. It 
is extensively grown for this market ; large in size, very roughly netted, 
and of luscious flavor ; different altogether from the Northern Netted 
Citron, which is earlier^ but not so fine in flavor, and not half the sise 
as the variety grown here. Small varieties of melons will improve in 
size if cultivated here for a number of years, and if care is t^ken that 
no Cucumbers, Squashes, Gourds or Pumpkin are cultivated in the 
vicinity. If the best and earliest specimens are selected for seed, in 
three or four vears the fruit will be large and fine. 



For the Southern States. 



47 



rVlELON -Water, 

Melon d'Eai"^ (Fr.u Wassekmelone (Ger.j, 'Sandia (Sp.), 
Mountain Sweet. | Orange Water, 

MoiTNTAiN Sprout, j Rattle Snake. 

Improved Gipsey, j Cuban Queen, 

Ice-Cream (White seeded). j Scaly Bark. 

Water Melon will grow and produce in places where Canteloupe 
will not do well. The soil for this i)iant should be light and sandy. 
Plant in hills about eight feet apart, eight to twelve seeds in a hill; 
when -the plants are well up thin out to three. The plants should be 
hoed often, and the ground between hills kejit clean till the ^'ines 
touch. 




Improved Gipsey Melon. 

MoMQitam S^weel "Water. This is a very popular variety, is of 
oblong shape, flesh bright scarlet and of gt>od flavor. It is very pro- 
ductive. 



48 Eichard Frotscher^'s Almanac and Garden Manual 



MoiiBfitaiu Sprout "Water. This is similar in shape to the fore- 
going variety, but rather later. It is light green with irregular stripes 
of dark green. Flesh bright scarlet. 

Improved Oipsey. This is a lately introduced viiriety which 
has become the favorite of the market-gardeners. It is very large, ob- 
long and of a dark green color, striped and mottled with light green. 
Flesh scarlet, and of delicious flavor. Tliis is without any exception 
the best market variety. 

Ice-Cream. (White Seeded.) A medium sized variety of excel- 
lent quality. It is early and very productive. Being thin in the rind 
it is not so well adapted for the market as the other kinds ; notwith- 
standing this, it is grown exclusively by some for that ijurpose, on ac- 
count of its earliness. It has come into general cultivation more and 
more every year, as it is very sweet, and sells readily in the market. 

Oraiisre "Water. Quite a distinct variety from the others. The 
rind ca]i be peeled off the same as the skin of an orange. It is of me- 
dium size, fair quality. Very little cultivated. 

Rattle Snake. An old Southern variety which has come into 
notice since a few years ; it is of large size, the green not quite so dark 
as the Gipsey, but the stripes larger ; line market variety. The past 
season, when other varieties failed, it stood the wet weather well, and 
sold more readily than others, not having been injured in looks. It ! 
stands transportation better than any other ; has become the standard | 
market variety, and taken the place of the Mountain Sweet and j 
Mountain Sprout, which were planted in former years. j 

Cuban Queen. A striped variety highly recommended by North- \ 
ern seedsmen ; said to reach from fift^' to seventy pounds. Sweet and i 
of delicate flavor. i 

Scaly Sark. A new kind raised much in Georgia for the North- j 
ern market. It grows to a large size and is of good flavor, but never 
vrill become as popular here as the Eattlesnake. It is not attractive 
in appearance, 

MUSTARD. 

MoiTTAKDE (Fr. I, Senf (Ger.), Mostaza (Sp.). 

White or Yellow Seeded, | Large-leaved, 

This is grown to quite an extent in the Southern States, and is 
sown broad-cast during fall, winter and spring. It may be used the 
same as spinach, or boiled with meat as greens. The White or Yellow 
Seeded is very little cultivated, and is used chiefly for medical pur- 
poses, or pickling. The Large-leaved or Curled has black seed, a dis- 
tinct kind from the Northern or European variety. The seed is raised 
in Louisiana. It makes very large leaves ; cultivated more and more 
every 3^ear. 

NASTURTIUM. 

Capl'cine (Fr.). Ikdianische Kresse (Ger.), Capuchixa i.Sp,). 
Tall. | Dwarf. 

Not cultivated here, except for ornament. 



For the Southern States. 



49 



OKRA. 

Tall Growinct. | Dwarf. 

This is a highly esteemed vegetable in the South, and no garden, 
whether small or large, is without it. It is used in making "Gumbo," 
a'dish the Creoles of Louisiana know how to prepare better than any 
other peop'le. It is also boiled in salt and water, and served with vine- 
gar as a salad, and is considered a very wdiolesome dish. Should not 
be planted before the ground is warm in spring, as the seeds are apt to 
rot. Sow in drills, which ought to be two to three feet apart, and when 
up, thin out, and leave one or two plants every tw^elve or fifteen 
inches. 

Long: l¥liite. This is the most tender of any kind, in shape the 
same as the Tall Growing, but the pods are of a very light green 
color. 




Tall Growing Okra. 

Tall Growing. This is the variety most cultivated here. The 
pods are long, round towards the end, and keep longer tender than the 
square podded kind. 

D"warf. Cultivated only as being earlier than the former kind. 
The pods are short, thick and ribbed, and not so nice in appearance 
as the Tall Growing variety. 

ONION. 

Onion (Fr.), Zwiebel (Ger.), Cebolla (Sp.). 

Yellow Dutch or Strassburg. I White, or Silver Skin. 

Large Red Wethersfield. ] Creole. 

The Onion is one of the most important vegetables, and is grown 
"to a large extent in Louisiana. Hundreds of barrels are shipped in 
spring from here to the Western and Northern States. There is one 

7 



50 Eichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



peculiar feature about raising Onions here, and that is they can only 
be raised from Southern, or so-called Creole seed. No seed from 
North, West, or any part of Europe, will produce a m_erchantable 
Onion in the South. When the crop of Creole seed is a failure, and 
they are scarce, they will bring a good price, and have been sold as 
high as ten dollars a pound, when at the same time Northern seed 
could be had for one-fourth of that price. Northern raised seed can 
be sown =to be used green, but as we have Shallots here which grow 
during the whole autumn and winter, and multiply very rapidly, the 
sowing of seed for green onions is not profitable. Seed should be 
sown from the middle of Seijtember to the end of October ; if sown 
sooner too many will throw up seed stalks. They are generally sown 
broad-cast, and when the size of a goose quill transplanted into 
rows one to two feet apart, and about five inches in the rows. Onions 
are different, in regard to rotation, from other vegetables ; they do 
best if raised on the same ground for a succession of years. The price 
of Onions has been good, and it is exoected to be good next spring, 
owing to the dry weather North and West, and it is hojied that a good 
profit will be niade by those vrho are in the cultivation of this vege- 
table. 

Yello-^v l>ut€2i or Strassbur^. A brownish yellow Onion, flat 
and of good size in the North, but does not bulb here. 

I^arg^e Red Tl^etliersfield. This is the favorite kind in the 
East, but does not answer here, except to be used green. 

White, or Silver Skin. A mild variety of the same shape as 
the Strassburg. - This variety is more apt to niake a small onion here 
than the two foregoing kinds are. 




Louisiana, or Creole Onion, 
Louisiana, or Creole Oiiioia. This is generally of a light red 
color, darker than the Strassburg. and lighter in color than the Weth- 



For the Soutltern States. 51 



ersfield. The seed I have been selling, of this kind, for a number of 
years, has been raised on Bayou Lafourche, and never has failed to 
make line large Onions. 

Last year the crop of Creole Onion seed having failed, I sold a 
good deal of Italian seed, and had ample opportunity to see the re- 
sults. The Giant Rocca I have discarded; it takes too long to- bulb 
and is very spongy. The Bermuda and Red Tripoli have done fair, but 
the onions do not mature as early as the Creole, and do not keep so 
well, although attaining a very large size, more so the Bermuda. They 
are of mild flavor and well adapted to be used up in spring, but I 
would not recommend them to be raised for shipping, except the 
White Queen. 

NEW ITALIAN ONIONS. 

Ne^w ^ueem. This is a medium sized white variety from Italy, 
very early and flat ; can be sown as late as February, and good sized 
bulbs will yet be obtained. It is of mild flavor and very fine when 
boiled and dressed for the table. It can not be too highly recom- 
mended. 

Criaait Red Bermuda. Globular in shape, of reddish color, 
darker than the Rocca, otherwise similar. I will offer some other 
varieties next year. Red Tripoli and Pale Red Etna ; the latter is flat, 
very early and keeps well. I have made arrangements to have a new 
crop of seed here in September, the proper time to sow Onion, and if 
the Creole Onion Seed should fail again, I recommend to sow any of 
the above kinds, but particulary the "Pale Red Etna," 

These Italian varieties are the first I ever saw bulb here, and they 
will be valuable when the crop of Creole Onion seed should fail. The 
seed I offer are imported directly from Italy, and can be relied upon 
as being genuine. Give them a trial. 

SHALLOTS. 

ECHALLOTTE (Er.), SCHALOTTEN (Ger.). 

A small sized Onion which grows in clumps. It is generally grown 
in the South, and used in its green state for soups, stews, etc. There 
are two varieties, the Red and White ; the latter variety is the most 
popular. In the fall of the year the bulbs are divided and set out in 
rows a foot apart, and four to six inches in the rows. They grow and 
multiply very fast, and can be divided during winter and set out again. 
Late in spring, when the tops become dry, they have to be taken up, 
thoroughly dried, and stored in a dry, airy place. 

PARSLEY. 

Persil (Fr.), Petersilie (Ger.), Perjil (Sp.). 

Plain Leaved. I Improved Garnishing. 

Double Curled. I 

Parsley can be sown during the fall from August to October, and 
during spring, from end of January to end of April. It is generally 
sown broad-cast. 

PiaiJi Leaved. This is the kind raised for the New Orleans 
market. 



52 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Double Curled. The leaves of this variety are curled. It has 
the same flavor as the other kind, but is not so popular. 

Improved Oaruislisng:. This is the best kind to ornament a 
dish ; has the same flavor as the other kinds. 

PARSNIP. 

Panais (Fr.), Pastinake (Ger.), Pastinaca (Sp.). 
Hollow Crown, or Sugar. 

Should be sown in deep, mellow soil, deeply spaded, as the roots 
are long, in drills twelve to eighteen inches apart ; when the plants are 
three inches high thin out to three inches apart in the row. Sow from 
September to November for winter, and January to March for spring 
and summer crops. 

The Hallow Cro\i^n, or 8ug-ar, is the kind generally culti- 
vated ; it possesses all the good qualities for which other varieties are 
recommended. 

PEAS. 

Pois (Fr.), Erbse (Ger.), Guisante (Sp.). 
EAELIEST. 

Laxton's Alpha, 3 feet. 



Extra Early, 2| feet. 
Early Washington, 3 feet. 
Early Tom Thumb, 1 foot. 



American Wonder, (New.) 



SECOND CROP. 



Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod, l-|feet. | McLean's Little Gem, IJ feet. 
Champion of England, 5 feet. Laxton's Prolific Long Pod, 3 ft. 

McLean's Advancer, 3 feet. | Eugenie, 3 feet. 

GENERAL CROP. 

Dwarf Blue Imperial, 3 feet. I Large White Marrowfat, 4 feet. 

Royal Dwarf Marrow, 3 feet. Dwarf Sugar, 2| feet. 

Black Eyed Marrowfat, 4 feet. | Tall Sugar, 6 feet. 

Peas are a flne vegetable, and therefore are very generally culti- 
vated. It is best to plant in ground manured the previous year, else 
they will make more vines than peas. As a general thing the dwarf 
kinds require richer ground than the tall growing varieties. Marrow- 
fat Peas planted in rich ground will not bear well, but they produce 
finely in sandy, light soil. 

The Extra Early, Tom Thumb, or Laxton's Alpha will not produce 
a large croj) without being in rich ground. Peas have to be planted 
in drills two inches deep and from two to three feet apart, according to 
the height they may grow. Tom Thumb can be planted one foot 
apart, whereas White Marrowfat or Champion of England require 
three feet. The Extra Early, Alpha and Tom Thumb can be planted 
during August and September for fall. During November and Decem- 
ber we plant the Marrowfats ; January and February, as late as March, 
all kinds can be planted, but for the latter month only the earliest 
varieties should be used, as the late varieties will get mildewed before 
they bring a crop. Peas will bear much better if some brush or rods 



For the Southern States. 



53 



are stuck in the drills to support 
them, except the very dwarf kinds. 

Extra Early. This is the 
earliest Pea cultivated ; very popu- 
lar with the small market gardeners 
here, who have rich grounds. It is 
very productive and good flavored. 
The stock I sell is as good as any 
sold in the country, not surpassed 
by any, no matter whose name is 
put before "Extra Early." 

Early T^asliing^ton, Early 
May or Frame, which are all 
nearly the same thing ; is about ten 
days later than the Extra Early. 
It is very j^roductive and keeps 
longer in bearing than the fore- 
going kind. Pods a little smaller. 
Very popular about New Orleans. 

Tom Tfiiumb. Very dwarf 
and quite productive. Can be cul- 
tivated in rows a foot apart; re- 
quires no branches or sticks. 

Eaxton's Alpha. This is a 
variety of recent introduction ; it is 
the earliest wrinkled variety in cul- 
tivation ; of delicious flavor and very 
prolific. This variety deserves to 
be recommended to all who like a 
first class pea. It will come into 
general cultivation when better 
known. 




Extra Earlv Peas. 



American Wonder. (New.) A wrinkled pea of dwarf growth, 
10 to 12 inches ; it is prolific, early and of fine quality ; it comes in after 
the Extra Early. 

Bishop's Dwarf Eong: Pod. An early dwarf variety, very 
stout and branching, requires no sticks, but simply the earth drawn 
round the roots. It is very productive and of excellent quality. 

Champion of Eng-|and. A green, wrinkled variety of very 
fine fiavor; not profitable for the market, but recommended for 
family use. 

Mc Eean's Advancer. This is another green, wrinkled variety, 
about two weeks earlier than the foregoing kind. 

McEean's Eittle Oein. A dwarf, wrinkled variety, of recent 
introduction. It is early, very prolific and of excellent flavor. Ke- 
quires no sticks. 

Eaxton's Prolific Eon^ Pod. A green marrow pea of good 
quality. Pods are long and well filled. It is second early, can be re- 
commended for the use of market-gardeners, being very prolific. 



54 Eichcuxl Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Biil^eiiie* A white, wrinkled variety, of fine flavor; it is of the 
same season as tlie Advancer. Cannot be too highly recommended 
j for family use. 

I I>\^^a.rf Blue iBiiperiaS. A very good bearer if planted early; 

pods are large and well filled. 

Itoyal IJu^airf Iflarrow. Similar to the large Marrowfa,t, but 
of dvv^arf habit. 

SSSaclt Ey«d Marrowfat. This kind is planted more for the 
market than any other. It is very productive, and when young, quite 
tender. Grows abont four feet high. 

t.arg-e l>¥Iiite Mars'o^vfat. Similar to the last variety, except 
that it grows about two feet taller, and is less productive. 

Dwarf !§iig'ar. A variety v/here the whole pod can be used, 
after the string is drawn off from the back of the pod. Three feet 
high. 

Tall Siig^ar. Has the same qualities as the foregoing kind, only 
grows taller, and the pods are somewhat larger. Neither of these two 
varieties are very popular here. 

THE PEA BUG. 

All peas grown near Philadelphia have small holes in them, caused 
by the sting of the Pea Bug, while the pod is forming, when it deposes 
its egg in it. Later the insect perfects itself and comes out of the 
dry pea, leaving the hole. 

The germ of the pea is never destroyed, and they grow equally as 
well as those without holes. Market-gardeners in this neighborhood 
who have been planting the Extra Early Peas for years, will not take 
them without holes, and consider these a trade mark. 

FIELD OR COW PEAS. 

There are a great many varieties of Cow Peas, different in color 
and growth. They are planted mostly for fertilizing purposes ; that 
is sown broad-cast, and when a good stand and of sufficient height, 
they are plovved under. The Clay Pea is the most popular. There 
are several varieties, called crowders, which do not grow as tall as the 
others, but produce a great many pods, which are used green, the 
same as snap-beans, and if dried, like dried beans. They make a 
very good dish. The crowders are of an oblong shape, almost pointed 
at one end ; they are on an average larger than the other Field Peas. 
Lady Peas are small, white, with a black eye ; they are generally 
planted between corn, so that they can run upon it. Dry, they are 
considered the very best variety for cooking. 

PEPPER. 

PiMENT (Fr.), Spanischer Pfeffee (Ger.), Pimento (Sp.). 
Bell or Bull Nose. j Long Bed Cayenne, ' .^ 

Sweet Spanish Monstrous. I Red Cherry. 

Peppers are tender and require to be raised in the hot-bed. Seed 
should be sown in January, and when large enough transplanted into 
the ground in rows from one and a half to tv/o feet apart, and a foot 
to a foot and a half in the rows. There are more Pei)pers raised here 
than in other sections of the country ; the hot varieties are used for 



For the Soathcrii States. 



55 



seasoning and making pe])per sauce ; 
the mild v a r i e t y is highly es- 
teemed for salad. Care should be 
taken not to grow different kinds 
close together, as they mix very read- 
ily. 

Sweet ^|>£iiiiish, or Moii- 
strotis. A very popular vaiiety, 
much cultivated, and used for salad. 
It is very mild, grows to a large size, 
tapering towards the end. 

Men or JBmH. Nose. Is a large 
oblong variety which is not sweet or 
mild, as thought by some. The seeds 
are very hot. Used for pickling. 

liiOia^ ISeii Cayeaaaie. Is very 
hot and pungent. Cultivated here 
and used for pepper sauce and season- 
ing purposes. 

Kcd CBuerry. A small round- 
ish variety, very hot and productive. 





Bed Cherry Pepper. I^ong Red Cayenne Pepper 

POTATOES. 

PoMME DE Terke (Fr), Kartofeel (Ger.), 

Extra Early Vermont. 
8nov/flake. 
Beauty of Hebron. 
White Elephant. 



Eauly Hose. 
Breese's Peerless. 
Breese's Prolific. 

KUSSETS. 



Potatoes thrive and produce best in a light, dry but rich soil. 
Well decomposed stable manure is the best, but if it cannot be had, 
cotton seed meal, bone dust, or any other fertilizer should be used to 
make the ground rich enough. If the ground Vv-as planted the fail 



56 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



previous with Cow Peas, which were plowed under, it will be in good 
condition for Potatoes. Good sized tubers should be selected for 
planting, which can be cut in pieces not too small ; each piece ought 
to contain at least three eyes. Plant in drills from two to three 
feet apart, according to the space and how to be cultivated afterw^ards. 
For field culture two and a half to three feet apart ; for garden, two 
feet will answer. We plant, potatoes here from end of December to 
end of March, but the surest time is about the first of February. If 
planted early they should be i:>lanted deeper than if planted late, and 
hilled up as they grow. If x^otatoes are planted shallow and not hilled 
soon, they will suffer more, if caught by a late frost, than if planted 
deep and hilled up well. Early potatoes have not the same value here 
as in the North, as the time of planting is so long, and very often the 
first planting gets cut down by a frost, and a later planting, which may 
just be peeping through the ground, will escape and produce in ad- 
vance of the first planted. A fair crop of potatoes can be raised here, 
if planted in August ; if the Autumn is not too dry they will bring nice 
tubers by end of November. They should not be cut if planted at this 
time of the year, but planted whole. They should be put in a moist 
place before planting, so they may sprout. The early varieties are 
preferable for this time of planting. 

I have been handling several thousand barrels of potatoes every 
season for planting, and make seed potatoes a specialty. The potatoes 
I sell are Eastern grown, which, as every one interested in potato 
culture knows, are superior and preferabe to Western grown. Twelve 
years ago I introduced the Peerless Potato here. I then only re- 
ceived ten barrels, as the price was high ; but seeing the fine qualities 
of the same, and finding it to suit our climate, I contracted the follow- 
ing year for a considerable lot, and urged my customers to plant 
them. No one has been disappointed in the result. It was during the 
same year that arhongst a lot of Jackson Whites sent out here from 
New York, there were one hundred barrels of Peerless Potatoes. 
Merchants are not very particular in regard to name, and they were 
sold for Goodrich, Jackson Whites, or anything else they resembled. 
They are well kown now, and the kind mostly planted. I brought 
out seven years ago the Extra Early Vermont, Brownell's Beauty, aad 
Compton's Surprise. The latter variety I have discarded; it is not 
salable on account of its purplish color. Six years ago the Snow- 
flake was the sensation. 

After another year's trial I have discarded the Brownell's Beauty. 
It is of very good quality, productive, but not salable in the market 
on account of its color, which resembles the Kusset, one of the most com- 
mon potatoes received here from the West. I have had six other new 
varieties under trial, but did not find anything to justify the ^igh 
price asked for them for our section. The Alpha is a fine white early 
kind, but not productive. Euby and other varieties are pinkish, which 
always is an objection for this market. These fancy prices for new 
potatoes do not pay here, as we can keep none over for seed, and any 
person raising for the market would not realize a cent more for a new 
fancy variety per barrel, than for a barrel of good Peerless or Early 
Eose. Earliness is no consideration, as we plant from December to 



For tJiC Southern States. 57 



end of March. Somebody may plant Early Eose in December and 
another in February, and those planted in February come to the 
market first ; it depends entirely upon the season. If late frosts set in, 
early planted potatoes will be cut down, and those just coming out of 
the ground will not be hurt. The Jackson YVhite has given but little 
satisfaction the last three years, except in cases where planted very 
early. The yield was very good, but the quality poor and very knotty. 
Perhaps this was the fault of the season. It is hardly planted any 
more for the market. Up to novy the Peerless is the standard variety. 
Among the new kinds I have tried, I find the White Elephant to be 
a fine potato. It is a ve-ry strong grower, tubers oblong, very pro- 
ductive, good quality and flavor. It is late and will come in at the end 
of the season if planted with the earlier varieties. So far the price 
lias been too high, but I expect to have some for sale again this year. 

Early Moseo This is, without any doubt, the best potato for the 
table. It is oval, very shallow-eyed, pink-skinned, very dry and mealy 
v/hen boiled. It has not become as popular as it deserves as a market 
variety, as pink or red potatoes do not sell so well here as the v^dlite 
kinds. This variety/ should not be planted too soon, from the fact 
that they make small stalks, and if cut dov^n b3/ frost, t\\Qj suffer 
more than other varieties. No better potato for family use. Every 
one who plants o Light to plant some of this variety, but they w^ant 
rich, light soil to grow to perfection. 

Hreese's Fees'Sess. Only nine years since this variety was in- 
troduced, yet at present it is the leading variety for market as well as 
for family use. Skin dull white, sometimes slightly russetted ; eyes 
few and shallow, round, occa,sionally oblong ; grows to a large size, 
very productive and earlier than the Jackson White. As white 
potatoes are more salable than pinkish kinds, and as this variety is 
ha,ndsome in appearance, and of good quality, it has become the 
general favorite in this section. 




'mM 







Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Breese's Prolific. This is another new sort. The vines are sliort, 
tubers from medium to large, very regular and very smooth. Skin 
dull white, slightly russetted ; eyes shallow and pinkish ; flesh white, 
very mealy and of fine quality; not quite so productive liere as the 
foregoing kind. 

Russets. This kind is still planted by some. It is round, reddish 
and slightly russetted. Eyes deep and m.any. Very productive, but 
not so fine a quality as some others. If the season is dry it will do 
well, but in a wet season, this variety will rot quicker than any other. 

Extra Early Ver- 
mont. Very similar to 
the Early Eose, but of 
a stronger growth ; a 
little earlier, and the 
tubers are more uni- 
form and larger. It is 
an excellent table vari- 
ety. 

!SnoA%''llake. This is 
a very early variety. 
Tubers good medium 
size; elongated, very 
uniform and quite pro- 
ductive. Eyes flat on 
the body of the tuber, 
but compressed on the 
seed end. Skin white, 
flesh very fine grained, 
and when boiled snow- 
white, 

Seaiity of MeforosB. 
I have tried this variety 
very thoroughly, and 
have found it all that 
it has been represented. 
It is earlier than the 
Early Eose, which re- 
sembles it very much, 
being a little lighter 
and more russetted in 
color. It is very pro- 
ductive and of excellent 
table quality, more 
mealy than the ■ Early 
Extra Early Vermont. Eose. 

Tl'liite Elephant. This variety has given entire satisfaction the 
past season, the tubers are large and of excellent quality ; planted 
alongside of the Peerless, it produced fully one-third more than that 
varietv. 




For the Soidhern States. 



THE SWEET POTATO. 

Convolvulus batatas. 

The Sweet Potato is next to corn the most important food croj) in 
the South. They are a wholesome and nutritious diet, good for man 
and beast. Though cultivated to a limited ^extent on the sandy lands 
of New Jersey and some of the middle States, it thrives best on the 
light rich lands of the South, v/hich bring their red and golden fruits 
to greatest perfection under the benign rays of a southern sun. It is a 
plant of a warm climate, a child of the sun, much more nutritious than 
the Irish Potato pn account of the great amount of saccharine matter 
it contains, and no southern table should be found without it from the 
first day of August till the last day of May. Some plant early in 
spring the potato itself in the prepared ridges, and cut the vine from 
the potato when large enough, and i^lant them out ; others start the 
potatoes in a bed prepared expressly for that purpose, and slip off the 
sprouts as they come up, and set these out. The latter method will 
produce the earliest potatoes, others who set out the vines, say that 
they make the largest tubers. In preparing the land the soil should 
be thoroughly pulverized, the ridges laid off about five feet apart, well 
drawn up and rather flat on top. If everything is ready, and time for 
planting has arrived, do not wait for a rain, make a paste of clay and 
cow manure, in this dip the roots of the slips and press the earth 
firmly around them. Old slips are more tenacious of life than young- 
ones, and will under these circumstances answer best. Watering 
afterwards, if dry weather continues, of course, will be beneficial. 
Otherwise plant your vines or slips just before or after a rain. Two 
feet apart in the row is considered a good distance. The ridges 
should never be disturbed by a plow from the time they are made un- 
til the potatoes are ready to be dug. 

Scrape off the grass and young weeds with the hoe and pull uj) 
the large ones by hand. Crap grass is peculiarly inimical to the sweet 
potato and should be kept carefully out of the patch. The vines 
should never be allowed to take root between the rows. Sweet pota- 
toes should be dug before a heavy frost occurs ; a very light one will 
"^ do no harm. The earth should be dry enough to keep it from sticking 
to the potatoes. The old fashioned potato bank is the best arrangement 
for keeping them, the main points being a dry place and ventilation. 

Vavletles generaJbj cultivated, in the South. 

The Yassi. Taking into consideration quality and productive- 
ness, the Yam stands at the head of the list. Frequently when baked, 
the saccharine matter in the shape of candy will be seen hanging to 
them, in strings. Skin and flesh yellow, and very sweet. Without a 
doubt, the best potato for family use. 

Soiitlierii C^weeai. Very similar to the former, but smoother, 
the tubers having no veins or very few. 

Sliang^haii or California Yasii. This is the earliest variety 
we have, frequently, under favorable circumstances, giving good 
sized tubers tw^o months after planting the vine. Very productive, 
having given 300 bushels per acre when planted early and on rich 



60 Elchard Frotsc]i6r''s Almanac and Garden Manual 



land. Is almost the only kind cultivated for the New Orleans market. 
Skin dull white or 3'ellow, flesh white, dry and mealy, in large speci- 
mens frequently stringy. 

There are some other varieties of Sweet Potatoes highly prized in 
the West, but are not appreciated here. The Eed and Yellow Nanse- 
mond are of fine quality ^.nd productive, but will not sell so w^ell as 
the California Yam when taken to market. For home consumption 
they are fine, and deserve to be cultivated. 

PUMP^CIN. 
PoTiKON (Fr.), KilRBiss (Ger.), Calabaza \Sp.j. 
Kentucky Field. j Cashav/ Ceook IS^eck. 

Laege Cheese. | 

Are generally grown in the field, with the exception of the Cashaw, 
wdiich is planted in the garden ; but great care must be taken not to 
plant them close to Squashes or Melons, as they will mix and spoil 
the quality of the same. Plant in hills from eight to tv;elve feet 
apart. 

Kciitiacliy Field. Large round, soft shell, salmon color ; very 
productive ; best for stock. 

!La.rg-e Claeeseo This is of a bright orange, sometimes salmon 
color, fine grained and used for the table or for stock feeding. 

Csislae,^' (Crools. WecM). This is very extensively cultivated in 
the South for ta^ble use. There are two kinds, one all yellow and the 
other green striped with light yellow color. The latter is the ]>reier- 
able kind ; the flesh is fine grained, yellow and very sv-eet. It keeps 
well. This variety takes the place here of the Winter Squashes, v;hich 
are very little cultivated. 

RADISH. 

, Eadies, Eave (Fr.), Eames, Eettig (Ger.), Eabano (Sp.). 
Early Long Scaelet. 
Early Scarlet Turnip. 
Y^'ellow Summer Tueni?. 
Eaely Scarlet Olive Shaped. 



White Summer Turnip. 
Scarlet Hale Long French. 
Black Spanish (Winter). 
Chinese Eose (Winter). 



This is a very popular vegetable, and grown to a large extent. 
The ground for radishes should be rich and mellow. The early small 
varieties can be sovvn broad-cast among other crops, such as beets, 
peas, spinach, or where lettuce has been transplanted. Early varie- 
ties are sown in this section the whole year, but during summer they 
require frequent watering to m.ake them grow quickly. The Yellow 
and White Summer Turnip are best for planting during the summer 
months. The Half Long Scarlet French is the only red kind raised 
for the ]S[ew Orleans market, and all the other cities in the United 
States taken together do not use as many of that one variety as New 
Orleans does. I have sold nearly two thousand pounds of the seed 
per annum for the last twelve years. 

EarBy I^oiig- Scas'Ietc This is a very desirable variety, it is of 
a bright scarlet color, short top, and very brittle. 

Ejai'Sy Scarlet Tairiiip. A small, round variety, the favorite 
kind for family use. It is very early, crisp and mild when young. 



For the Soutliern States. 



Gl 




Scarlet Half Long French. 





Early Loner Scarlet. 




Early Scarlet Turnip. 



Yea low 8 II 21131161' Turaiip. This stands the heat better than 
the foregoing kinds. It is of an oblong shape, yellow, russetted on 
the top. It should be sown very thinly. Best adapted for summer 
and fall sowing, 

Eai'Sy 'Scarlet Olive Sltaped. This is similar to the Half 
Long French, but shorter, and not quite so bright in color. It is early 
and of good quality. Top short. 



62 



Fdchard Frotsdier's Almanac and Garden Manual 



TVliile Siiniiiiei' Turnip. This is a summer and fall variety. 
Oblong in shape, skin white, stands the heat vrell, but is not much 
used. 

Scarlet Half L.oiig' Freacli. This is the most popular Radish 
for the market. It is ot a bright scarlet color, and when well gTown 
from two to three inches long, Tery brittle and tender. 

Black SpatiisSi. (Wintfjj.j This is sown during fall and early 
winter. It is oval in shape, very solid, and stands considerable cold 
weather without being hurt. It can be sown broad-cast between Tur- 
nips, or planted in rows a foot apart, and thinned out from three to 
four inches in the rows. 

C'iiiBiese Rose. ( Wixtee. i This is of a half long shape, bright 
rose color. It is as hardy as the last described kind, but not so popu- 
lar. 

ROQUETTE. 

ROQUETTE (Fr.i. 

Sown from September to March. It is used as a salad, resem- 
bling the Cress in taste. 

SALSIFY, OR Oystee Plaxt. 
Saesifis (Fr. i, H.aferwurzel iGer.'), Ostea Vegetal (Sp. ■. 

A vegetable which ought to be more cul- 
tivated than it is. It is prepared in diiTer- 
ent ways. It partakes of the flavor of oys- 
ters. It should be sown in the fall of the 
year; not later than November. The 
gTound ought to be manured the spring 
previous, and' deeply spaded up, and well 
pulverized. Sow in drills about ten inches 
apart, and thin out to three to four inches in 
the rows. 

SPINACH. 

Epixasd i.Fr. I. Spixat (Ger. i, Espixago I'Sp.). 

ExTEA Laege Leaved Savoy. 
Beoad Leaved Flaxdees. 

A great deal of this is raised for the Xew 
Orleans market. It is ver^' popular. Sown 
from September to end of March. If the 
fall is dry and hot, it is useless to sow it, as 
the seeds require moisture and cool nights 
to make them come up. The richer the 
ground the larger the leaves. 

Extra Large Leaved Savoy. The 
leaves of this variety are large, thick and a 
little curled. Very good for family use. 

Broad Leaved Flanders. This is 

The standard variety, both for market and family use. Leaves large, 
broad and very succulent. 




Salsify or Ovster Plant. 



For the SoutJiern States. 



63 



SORREL. 

OsEiLLE (Fr.), Sauerampfer (Ger.), Acedera (Sp.). 

Planted in drills a foot apart, during the fall of the year ; and 
thinned out to three to four inches in the drills. Sorrel is used for 
various purposes in the kitchen. It is used the same as Spinach ; also, 
in soups and as a salad. 

SQUASH. 

CouROE (Fr.), KiiRBiss (Ger.), Calabaza Tontanera (Sp.). 

Early Bush, or Patty Pan. London Vegetable Marrow. 

Long Green, or Summer Crook 



neck. 



The Hubbard. 
Boston Marrow. 



Sow during- March in hills from three to four feet apart, six to eight 
seeds. When well up, thin them out to three of the strongest plants. 
For a succession they can be planted as late as June. Some who pro- 
tect by boxes plant as soon as the first of February, but it is best to wait 
till the ground gets warm. When it is time to plant Corn, it is time 
to i^iiint Squash. 




Early BvTsli or Patty Pan. 



Lonj? Green or Summer Crook-Neck 



The Hubbard. 



Ea^ ly Biisli, or Patty Psiii. Is the earliest and the only j^opular 
kind here. All other varieties are very little cultivated, as the Cashaw 
Pumpkin, the striped variety, takes their i)lace. It is of dwarfish 
habit, grows bushy and does not take much room. 

I^ostg- Crreeii, or §uiiiiiier Crooli-NecSs.. This is a very strong 
grower, and continues in bearing longer than the first named kind. 
It is of good quality, but not so popular. 

Ijondon Veg-etable Marrow. A European variety, very little 
cultivated here. It grows to a good size and is very dry. Color, 
whitish with a yellow tinge. 

Tlie If ul>l>ard. This is a Winter Squash, very highly esteemed 
in the East, but hardly cultivated here. 

JSostoai Marron'. Cultivated to a large extent North and East 
for winter use, where it is used for custards, etc. It keeps for a long 
time and is of excellent qualitv, but not esteemed here, as most people 
consider the Southern grown Cashaw Pumpkin superior to any Winter 
Squash. 



6i 



Ricliard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



TOlViATO. 



Tom ATE (Fr.), Liebesap] 

Extra Early Dwarf Eed. 
Early Large Smooth Red. 

TiLDEN. 

Trophy, (Selected). 
Large Yellow. 



3L (Ger.), Tom ate (Sp.). 

Acme. (New.) 
Paragon. (New.^ 
Livingston 's Perfection. 
Livingston's Favorite. 



Seed should be sown in January, in liot-beds, or in boxes, w'hicli 
must be placed in a sheltered spot, or near windo^vs. Li March they 
can be sown in the open ground. Tomatoes are generally sown too 
thick, and become too crowded when two to thrre inches high, which 
makes the plants too thin and spindly. . If they are transplanted when 
two to three inches high, about three inches apart each way, they will 
become short and sturdy, and will not suffer when planted out into 
the o]ien ground. Plant them from three to four feet aimrt. Some 
varieties can be ]~)lanted closer; for instance, for the Extra Early, 
which is of very dwarfish habit, two and a half feet apart is enough. 




Selected Trophy. 



For the Southern States. 



They should be sii])- 
l)orted by stakes. When 
allowed to grow up wild, 
the fruit which touches 
the ground will rot. For 
a late or fall crop the seed 
should be sown towards 
the latter end of May 
and during June. 

Extra Early Dwarf. 
This is the earliest in 
cultivation. It is dwarfish 
in habit ; fruit larger than 
the following kind, and 
more flat; bright scarlet 
in color and very pro- 
ductive. For an early 
market variety it cannot 
be surpassed. 




The New Acme. 



66 



Richard Frotscliej''s Almanac and Garden Manual 



■ Early l,arg-e SanootSi Med. One of the earliest ; medium size ; 
skin ii^ht scarlet ; smooth and i)roductive. 

TiMeai. This has been the standard variety for family garden as 
well as market, but has been supplanted to a great extent by later 
introductions. It is of a good shape, brilliant scarlet, and from 
above medium to large in size and keeps well. 

Selected TropSiy. A very large, smooth Tomato, more solid and 
heavy than any other kind. It is not quite as early as the Tilden. 
Has become a favorite variety. 

Liarg-e YeSIoiv. This is similar in shape to the Large Ked, but 
more solid. Not very popular. 

Acme. This is a new variety and the prettiest and most solid 
Tomato ever introduced. It is of medium size, round and very smooth, 
a strong grower and a good and long bearer. They are the perfection 
of Tomatoes for family use, bat will not answer for shipping purposes ; 
the skin is too tender and cracks vrhen fully ripe. Of all the varieties 
introduced none yet has surpassed this kind, when all qualities are 
brought into consideration. It does well about here where the ground 
is heavy. 

ParagoBi. This variety has lately come into notice. It is very 
solid, of a bright reddish crimson color, comes in about the same time 
as the Tilden, but is heavier in foliage, and protects its fruit. It is 
productive and keeps long in bearing. Well adapted for shipping. 

r,ivm§^stoii's PerfectioM. 
Very similar to the above in shape 
and color, 

Liiviaagstoai's Favorite. This 
is the latest novelty ; it is as perfect 
in shape and as solid as the Acme, 
but much larger, and of a handsome 
dark red color. I had some sent 
to me by a customer, and they 
surely were the finest specimen of 
tomatoes I ever sav/, and Avere ad- 
mired by everybody wlio saw them. 
They will keep well and do not 
Livmgotuu -5 X dvonte. CiaCK. 

The seed of the last four varieties are raised for me by the originators, Messrs. 
Livingston's Sous, and can be rehed upon as being true to name and of superior quaUty. 




TURNIP. 

Navet (Fr.), EilBE (Ger.), jN"abo Comun (Sp.j. 

Yellow Aberdeen. 
Golden Ball. 

Amber Globe. " v. 

Early Purple Top Muxich. 
Purple Top Ruta Baga. 
Improved Ruta Baga. 
Extra Early White French, or 
White Egg Turnip (new). 

Turnips do best in new ground. When the soil has been worked 
long, it should receive a top dressing of land-plaster or ashes. If 



Early Red or Purple Top, 

(strap-leaved). 
Early White Flat Dutch, 

(straivleaved). 
Purple Top Globe. 
Large AVhite Globe. 
Pomerian Globe. 
White Spring. 



For tlte Southern States. 



07 



stable manure is used the ground should be manured the sprini;- pre- 
vious to sowin^i;-, so it may be well incorporated with the soil. When 
fresh manure is used the turnips are apt to become speckled. Sow 
from end of July till October for 
fall and winter, and in January, 
February and March for spring and 
summer use. They are generally 
sown broad-cast, but the Ruta Baga 
should be sown in drills, or rather 
ridges, and should not be sown later 
than the end of August; the Golden 
Ball and Aberdeen, not later than 
the end of Se]:>tember. The White 
Flat Dutch, Early Spring and Pome- 
rian Globe are best for spring, but also 
good for autumn. 

Early Red, or Paarple Top. 
(Strap-Leaved.) This is one of the 
most popular kinds. It is flat, with a 
small tap-root, and a bright purple 
top. The leaves are narrow and grow 
erect from the bulb. The flesh is finely 
grained and rich. Early Red or Purple Top (strap-leaved 





Early White Flat Dutch, (strap-leaved). 

Early lil^hite Flat l>iitch. (Strap-Leaved.) This is similar to 
the above in shape, but considered about a week earlier. It is very 
popular. 

Purple Top Crlofee. A variety of recent introduction ; same 
shape as the Pomerian Globe, but with purple top. Fine variety for 
the table or for stock. It is not quite so early as the Early Red or 
Purple Top. Recommend it very highly. 

ILarg^e White Olobe. A very large variety, mostly grown for 
stock. It can be used for the table when young. Flesh coarse, but 
* sweet ; tops very large. 



68 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Pouieriaii Olobe. 

This is selected from 
the above. It is 
smoother and hand- 
somer in shape ; good 
to plant early in 
spring. When pulled 
before it is too large 
it is a very salable 
turnip in the market. 

Tl liite Spring^. 
This is similar to the 
White Flat Dutch; 
not quite so large, 
but rounder in shape. 
The tops are larger ; 
it is early, a good 
quality, and best 
adapted for s]:)ring 
planting. 

Yellow Aber- 
deen. This is a 
variety very little 
cultivated here. It is 
shaped like the Buta 
Baga, color yellow 
with purple top. 
Good for table use 
or feeding stock. 



Pomerian Globe. 



Robertson's C^olden Ball, is the best of the yellov^' Turnips 
for table use. It is very smooth, oval in shape, and of a beautiful 
orange color. Leaves are small. Should be sown in the fall of the year, 
and always in drills, so that the plants can be thinned out and worked. 
This kind ought to be more cultivated. 

Amber Globe. This is very similar to the above kind. 

Early PurpSe Top Municli, A new variety from Germany ; 
flat, with Eed or Purple Top; same as the American variety,- but fif- 
teen days earlier to mature. It is very hardy, tender and of fine fla- 
vor. Eecommended highly. 

Pnrple Top Ruta Bag-a or Swede. This is grown for feed- 
ing stock, and also for table use. It is oblong in shape, yellow flesh, 
very solid. Should always be sown in rows or ridges. 



For the Southern States. 



69 




Improved Purple Top Ruta Baga. Extra Early White French. 

Impi'ovecl Purple Top Muta Sag'a. Similar to the above ; 
bulb smoother, with but few fibrous roots. 

Extra Early WMte French, or l^liite Egg Turnip. This 
is a lately introduced variety; is said to be very early, tender and 
crisp. The shape of it is oblong, resembling an egg. Having tried it, I 
found it as represented, quickly growing, tender and sweet. It never 
will become a favorite market variety, as only flat kinds sell well in 
this market. It has to be imlled up soon, as it becomes pithy shortly 
after attaining maturity. 



SWEET AND MEDICINAL HERBS. 

Some of these possess culinary as well as medicinal properties. 
Should be found in every garden. Ground where they are to be sown 
should be well prepared and i)ulverized. Some of them have very fine 
seed, and it is only necessary, after the seed is sown, to press the ground 
with the back of the spade ; if covered too deep they cannot come up. 
Early spring is the best time to sow them — some, such as Sage, Kose- 
mary. Lavender and Basil, are best sown in a frame and afterwards 
transplanted into the garden. 

Anise, Pimpinelle Anisum. 

Balm, Melisse Officinalis. 

Basil, large and small leaved, Ocymum Basilicum. 

Bene, Sesamum Orientale. 

Borage, Borago Officinalis. 

Caraway, Carmn Garni. 



TO Fudicird Frotscher's Almanac ami Garden 2IanaaJ 



Dill, Anetiann Grareolens. 

Fennel, sweet, Anelhum Foeniddxin. 

Lavender, Lavendnla Vera. 

]\Iajoram, sweet, Origamtrrt J'daiioram. 

Pot :y;arigold, Calendula OfficinalU. 

Eosemary, Bosemarij Officinalis. 

Eue, Ruta Grareolens. 

Sage, Salria Officinalis. 

Sammer SaTory, Satiireja Hortensis. 

Tkyme, Thymas Vulgarw. 

TVormwood. Artemisia Ab^itttlil>nn. 

! CRASS AMD FIELD SEEDS. 

i 

I have often been asked what kind of Grass Seed is the best for 
this latitude, but so far I have never been able to answer this question 
satisfactorily. For hay I do not think there is a.n^■thing better than 
the Millet. For permanent grass I have almost come to the conclusion 
that rone of the grasses used for this purpose North and West will 
answer. Eye, Eed Oats and Eescue Grass will make winter pastiu'age 
in this latitude. Different kinds of Clover answer very well during- 
spring, but during the hot summer months I have never found any- 
thing to stand and produce except the Bermuda and Crabgrass, which 
are indigenous to the South. The former does not seed, and has to be 
propagated b^" roots. In my opinion it is better suited for pasturage 
than hay, as it is rather short and hard when cured. I ha,ve had so 
many applications for Guinea Grass that I have been induced to im- 
port some from Jamaica, where it is used altogether for i asturage. It 
seems to grow rank, but so far I am not enabled to i ass an 'opinion 
upon it : it looks rather coarse for hay. Having tried Guinea Grass I 
have come to the conclusion that it will not answer for here, from the 
fact that it will freeze out every year. It will produce a large quan- 
tity of hay or gi^een fodder, but has to be resown every spring. The 
seeds that are raised here are light, and do not germinate freely. To 
import seed every year is rather troublesome. The Johnson Grass 
advertised by some as Guinea Grass is not Guinea Grass, it is much 
coarser, and can hardly be destroyed after having taken hold of a 
piece of ground. Some are enthusiastic about Alfalfa or Lucerne ; 
others, whose opinion ought also to be respected, say it will not do 
here. There exists a great difference of oi;inion in regard to which 
grass seed is most suitable for the South. 

Red Clover. Should be sown either during fall or early in 
spring. Six t':> eight pounds to an acre. 

^'Iiiie Dutcli Clover. A grass sown for pasturage at the. rate 
of four to six pounds to the acre. Should be sown in early spring. 

Alsike C Sever. This is also called Hybrid Clover. It is a na- 
tive of Sweden, a cold climate, and does not succeed so well here as 
the other kinds, because of burning out in summer. 

AJfaifa or Cliiii Clover, or Fieiicli tiicerue. This va- 
riety does well here, but the ground has to be well prepared and deeply 
plowed. It will not do in low, wet ground. Should be sown in Janu- 



For the Souther h States. 71 



ary or February ; ei.i^iit to ten i)ouiids per acre. (See letter of E. M. 
HudsoK at end of Seed Catalo.-^-ue^ 

KeiatHcKy Blue CJrass, (ExtpcA Cleane!).) Should be sown 
in dry soil. Two bushels per acre. 

Orcaaaa'c9 Clrsiss. This is one of the best grasses for pasturing. 
It grows (piickly, much more so than the Blue Grass. Can be sown 
either m fall or spring. Sow one to one and a half bushel per acre. 
(See extract from "Farmers' Book of Grasses.") 

KescMe Orass. A forage plant from Australia. It grows during 
winter. Sow the seed in the fall of the year, but not before the weather 
gets cool, as it will not sprout so long as the ground is warm. Sow 
li bushels seed to the acre. 

HuMg'aB'iaiiC^rass. This is a valuable annual forage plant and 
good to make hay. Sow three pecks to the acre. It should be cut 
when in bloom. 

Oerman Millet. Of all the Millets this is the best. It makes 
good hay, and produces heavily. Three pecks sown to the acre 
broad-cast secures a good stand. Can be sown from April till June, 
but the former month is the best time. Should be cut the same as the 
foregoing kind. 

Rye. Is sown dining the fall months as late as December for 
forage, and for pasturage during winter and spring. 

JBarley, Fall. Can be sown fall and winter, but requires strong, 
good soil. Used here for forage during its green state. 

Ited or Rust Proof Oats. It is only a few years since these 
Odts have come into general cultivation. They are very valuable 
and will save a great deal of corn on a farm. The seed of this variety 
has a reddish cast, and a peculiar long beard, and is very heavy. It 
is the only kind which will not rust in the Southern climate. They 
can be sown as early as October, but should be pastured down as 
soon as they commence to joint, till February. When the ground is 
low, or the season wet, this cannot well be done without destroying the 
whole crop. During January and February is the proper time, if no 
pasturing can be done. One to one and a half bushel per acre is suf- 
ficient. These oats have a tendency to stool, and therefore do not re- 
quire as much per acre as common oats. Those who have not already 
tried this variety should do so. 

Sorg-liiisi?. Is planted for feeding stock during the spring and 
early summer. For this purpose it should be sown as early in spring- 
as possible in drills about two to three feet ai^art ; three to four quarts 
per acre. It makes excellent green fodder. 

Brooiia CorMo Can be planted the same as corn, but the hills 
closer together in the row. Six quarts will plant an acre. 

£ast In^ia Millet. My Almanac of 1879 gave a full descrip- 
tion of this forage plant, written by E M. Hudson, Esq. It has pro- 
ven to be all that has been claimed for it, 

Bermuda Or ass. Almost everybody living in this section of 
the country knows this grass; it is planted as a Lawn Grass, and 
nothing will stand the sun better or will make a prettier carpet, when 
kept short, than this grass. It is also very valuable as a pasture and 
hay grass. For the first time I have been able to obtain the seed of 



72 Richard Frotschers Almanac and Garden Manual 



this grass, -which heretofore had to be propagated by the roots. I 
offer a limited quantity at S2.00 per lb. One and a half to two pounds 
will sow an acre. Should be planted in spring, but can be sown later. 



The following extracts have been taken, by permission, from the 
author, Dr. D. L. Phares, from his book just published, "Farmers' 
Book of Grasses." It is the most valuable work of the kind ever pub- 
lished in the South, and should be in the hands of every one who 
takes an interest in the cultivation of grasses. 

Copies for sale at publisher's price. Paper covers, 50 cents : Cloth, 
75 cents ; postage paid. 

OKCHARD GRASS. 

[Dactiills Glomerata.) 

Of all the gTasses this is one of the most widely diffused, growing 
in Africa, Asia, and every country in Europe and all our States. It is 
more highly esteemed and commended than any other grass, by a lar- 
ger number of farmers in most countries — a most decided proof of its 
great value and wonderful adaptations to many soils, climates and 
treatments. Yet, strange to say, though growing in England for 
many centuries, it was not appreciated in that country till carried 
there from Tirginia in 1764. But, as in the case of timothy, soon after 
its introduction from America, it came into high favor among far- 
mers, and still retains its hold on their estimation as a grazing and 
hay crop. 

Xor is this strange when its many advantages and points of excel- 
lence are considered. It will grow well on any soil containing suffi- 
cient clay and not holding too much water. If the land be too tena- 
cious, drainage will remedy the soil ; if worn out, a top dressing of 
stable manure will give it a good send-off, and it will furnish several 
good mowings the first year. It grows well between 29'* and 48« lati- 
tude. It may be mowed from two to four times a year, according to 
the latitude, season and treatment ; yielding from one to three tohs of 
excellent hay per acre on poor to medium land. In grazing and as 
hay most animals select it in preference among mixtures in other 
grasses. In' lower latitudes it furnishes good winter grazing, as well 
as for spring, summer and fall. After grazing or mowing few grasses 
grow so rapidly i^three or six inches per week), and are so soon 
ready again for tooth or blade. It is easily cured and handled. It is 
readily seeded, and catches with certainty. Its long, deeply penetra- 
ting, fibrous roots enable it to sustain itself and grow vigorously dur- 
ing droughts that dry up other grasses, except tall oat grass, which 
has similar roots and characteristics. It grows well in open lands 
and in forests of large trees, the underbrush being all cleared off. I 
have had it grown luxuriantly even in beech woods, where the roots 
are superficial, in the crotches of roots and close to the trunks of trees. 
The hay is of high quality, and the young grass contains a larger per 
cent, of nutritive digestible matter than any other grass. It thrives 
well without any renewal on the same ground for thirty-five, nay 
forty years ; how much longer I am not able to say. It is easily exter- 
minated when the land is desired for other crops. Is there any other 
grass for which so much can be said? 



For the Southern States. 73 



RED TOP GRASS. 

{AgroatiH Vulgaris.) 

This is the best grass of England, the herd grass of the Southern 
States ; not in honor of any man, but probably because so well adapted 
to the herd. It is called also Fine Top, Burden's and Borden's 
Grass. Varying greatly in characters, according to soil, location, cli- 
mate and culture, some botanists have styled it A. Polymorpha. It 
grows two to three feet high, and I have mown it when four feet high. 
It grows well on hill-tops and sides, in ditches, gullies and marshes, 
but delights in moist bottom land. It is not injured by overflows, 
though somewhat prolonged. In marshy land it produces a very 
dense, strong network of roots capable of sustaining the weight of 
men and animals walking over it. 

It furnishes considerable grazing during warm "spells" in winter, 
and in spring and summer an abundant supply of nutrition. It has 
a tendency, being very hardy, to increase in density of growth and ex- 
tent of surface, and will continue indefinitely, though easily subdued 
by the plow. 

Cut before maturing seed it makes a good hay and large quantity. 
It seems to grow taller in the Southern States than it does further 
North, and to make more and better hay and grazing. Bed top and 
timothy, being adapted to the same soil and maturing at the same 
time, do well together and produce an excellent hay. But the red top 
will finally root out timothy, and if pastured much it will do so sooner. 

Sow about two bushels (24 lbs.) per acre, if alone, in Sex)tember, 
October, February or March ; if with timothy for hay, from 6 to 10 
pounds ; if with other grasses for pasture, 3 to 5 pounds. It is an ex- 
cellent imsture grass, and will grow on almost any kind of soil. 

KENTUCKY BLUE ORASS. 

{Poa Fratensis.) 

This is called also smooth meadow grass, spear grass, and green 
grass, all three very appropriate, characteristic names. But Blue is a 
misnomer for this grass. It is not blue, but 'green as grass' and 
the greenest of grasses. The F. compressa, flat-stalked meadow grass, 
Avire grass, blue grass is blue, the 'true blue' grass from which the 
genus received its trivial name. 

Kentucky blue grass, known also in the Eastern States as June 
grass, although esteemed in some parts of America as the best of all 
pasture grasses, seems not to be considered very valuable among 
English farmers excej^t in mixtures. It is certainly a very desirable 
pasture grass however. Its very narrow leaves, one, two or more feet 
long, are in such profusion and cover the ground to such depth with 
their luxuriant growth that a mere description could give no one an 
adequate idea of its beauty, (juantity and value ; that is on rich land. 
On poor, sandy land, it degenerates sadly as do other things uncon- 
genially located. 

Perennial, and bearing cold and drought well, it furnishes grazing 
a large part of the year. It is specially valuable as a winter and 
spring grass for the South. To secure the best winter results, it should 
10 



RlcJicird Frotscher's Almanac and Garden ^Manual 



be allowed a good growth in early fall, so that the encU of the leaves 
being killed by frost afford an ample covering for the under-parts 
which continue to grow all winter, and afford a good bite whenever 
required by sheep, cattle, hogs and horses. In prolonged summer 
drought it dries completely, so that if fired, it would burn off clean. 
But this occurs in Kentucky, where indeed it has seemed, without 
fire, to disappear utterly ; yet when rain came, the bright green spears 
promptly recarpeted the earth. 

With its underground stems and many roots, it sustains the heat 
and drought of the Southern States as well as those of Kentucky; 
where indeed it is subjected to severer trials of this kind than in the 
more Southern States. In fact, it bears the vicissitudes of our climate 
about as well as Bermuda grass, and is nearly as nutritious. 

Blue grass grows well on hill tops, slopes, or bottom lands, if not 
too wet and too poor. It may be sown any time from September to 
April, preferably perhaps in the latter half of February, or early in 
March. The best catch I ever had was sown the 20th of March, on 
unbroken land, from which trash, leaves, etc., had just been burned. 
The surface of the land should be cleaned of trash of all kinds, 
smooth, even ; and if recently plowed and harrowed, it should be 
rolled also. This last proceeding is for compacting the surface in 
order to prevent the seed from sinking too deep in the ground. With- 
out harrowing or brushing in, many of them get in too deep to come 
up, even when the surface of the land has had the roller over it. The 
first rain after seeding will put them in deep enough, as the seeds are 
very minute, and the spears of grass small as fine needles, and there- 
fore unable to get out from under heavy cover. These spears are so 
small as to be invisible, except to close examination, and in higher la- 
titudes, this condition continues through the first year. Thus, some 
who have sown the blue grass seed, seeing the first year no grass, 
imagine they have been cheated, plant some other crop, and probably 
lose what close inspection would have shown to be a good catch. 
This, however, is not apt to occur in the Southern tier of States, as the 
growth here is more rapid. The sowing mentioned above, made on the 
20th of March, came up promptly, and in three months the grass was 
from six to ten inches high. One year here gives a finer growth and 
show than two in Kentucky or any other State so far North. 

Sown alone, 20 to 26 pounds, that is, 2 bushels, should be used : 
in mixtures, -i to 6 pounds. 

ENGLISH OR PEREXXIAL RYE ORASS. 

[Lolium Perenne.) 

This is the first grass cultivated in England over two centuries ago. 
and at a still more remote period in France, It was long more ^videly 
known and cultivated than any other grass, became adapted to a 
great variety of soils and conditions, and a vast number (seventy or 
more ) varieties produced ; some of which were greatly improved, while 
others were inferior and became annuals. Introduced into the United 
States in the first quarter of the current century, it has never become 
very popular, although shown by the subjoined analysis of Way not to 



Fo7' the Southeim States. 75 



be deticient in nutritive matter. In 100 parts of the dried gi'ass cut in 
bloom were albuminoids 11.85, fatty matters 3.17, heat-producing 
principles 42.24, woody fibre 35.20, ash 7.54. The more recent analysis 
of Wolff and Knopp, allowing for water, gives rather more nutritive 
matter than this. 

It grows rapidly and yields heavy crops of seed, makes good grazing 
and g-ood hay. But as with all the Eye grasses, to make good hay it 
must be cut before passing the blossom stage, as after that it deteri- 
orates rapidly. The roots being short, it does not bear drought well 
and exhausts the soil, dying out in a few years. In these respects it 
is liable to the same objections as timothy. The stem one to two feet 
high, has four to six purplish joints and as many dark green leaves. 
The flexions spiked panicle bearing the distant spikelets, one in each 
bend. 

It should be sown in August or September, at the rate of twenty-five 
or thirty pounds or one bushel seed per acre. 

TALL MEADOW OAT ORASS. 

{Arrhenatherumi Avenaceimi.) 

Evergreen grass in Virginia, and other Southern States, and it is the 
Tall Oat (Avena elatior) of Linaeus. It is closely related to the com- 
mon oat, and has a beautiful open panicle, leaning slightly to one side. 
"Spikelets two flowered and a rudiment of a third, open; lowest 
flower staminate or sterile, with a long bent awn below the middle of 
the back. "—(Flint.) 

It is widely naturalized and well adapted to a great variety of soils. 
On sandy, or gravelly soils, it succeeds admirably, growing two or 
three feet high. On rich, dry upland it grows from five to seven feet 
high. It has an abundance of perennial, long fibrous roots, pene- 
trating deeply in the soil, being therefore less affected by drought or 
cold, and enabled to yield a large quantity of foliage, winter and sum- 
mer. These advantages render it one of the very best grasses for the 
South, both for grazing (being evergreen) and for hay, admitting of 
being cut twice a year. It is probably the best winter grass that can 
be obtained. 

It will make twice as much hay as timothy, and containing a 
greater quantity of albuminoids, and less of heat-producing princi- 
ples, it is better adapted to the uses of the Southern farmer, while it 
exhausts the surface soil less, and may be grazed indefinitely, except 
after mowing. To make good hay it must be cut the instant it blooms, 
and, after being cut, must not get wet by dew or rain, which dam- 
ages it greatly in quality and appearance. 

For green soiling, it may be cut four or five times with favorable 
seasons. In from six to ten days after blooming, the seeds begin to 
ripen and fall, the upper ones first. It is therefore a little trouble- 
some to save the seed. As soon as those at the top of the panicle ripen 
sufficiently to begin to drop, the heads should be cut off and dried, 
when the seeds will all thresh out readily and be matured. After the 
seeds are ripe and taken off the long abundant leaves and stems are 
still green, and being mowed, make good hay. 



76 Richard FrotscheP's Almanac and Garden Manual 



It may be sown in March or April, and mowed tlie same season ; bat, 
for heavier yield, it is better to sow in September or October. Along 
the more southerly belt, from the 31" parallel southward, it may be 
sown in November and onward till the middle of December. When- 
ever sown it is one of the most certain grasses to have a good catch. 
Not less than tw^o bushels (14 pounds) per acre should be sowai. Like 
timothy, on inhospitable soils, the root may sometimes become bul- 
bous. The average annual nutrition yielded by this grass in the 
Southern belt is probably twice as great as in Pennsylvania and other 
Northern States. 

JOHNSON GRASS. 

iSorgh um halapense.) 

This has been called Cuba grass, Guinea grass, Egyptian grass, 
Means grass, Alabama Guinea grass, etc. 

It seems pretty well agreed now, however, to call it Johnson grass, 
and leave the name Guinea grass for the Panicain jumentorwn, to 
which it ])roperly belongs. 

It is true that in Mr. Howard's i)amphlet, as well as in many period- 
icals and books, and in letters and common usage, this grass has been 
far more generally called Guinea grass than the true Guinea grass it- 
self, thus causing vast confusion. It is, therefore, assuredly time to 
call each by its right name. Johnson grass is perennial and has cane- 
like roots, or more properly underground stems, from the size of a 
goose-quill to that of the little finger. These roots are tender, and 
hogs are fond of and thrive on them in winter. The roots literally fill 
the ground near the surface, and every joint is capable of developing 
a bud. Hence the grass is readily propagated from root cuttings. It 
is also propagated from the seed, but not always so certainly ; for in 
some localities many faulty seeds are produced, and in other places 
no seed are matured. Before sowing the seed, therefore, they should 
be tested, as should all grass seeds indeed, in order to know what pro- 
portion will germinate, and thus what quantity per acre to sow. One 
bushel of a good sample of this seed is sufficient for one acre of land. 

The leaf, stalk and panicle of this grass resemble those of other 
sorghums. It grows on any land where corn will grow ; and like the 
latter, the better the land the heavier the crop. On rich land the 
culms attain a size of over half an inch in diameter and a height of 
seven feet. It should be cut while tender, and then all live stock are 
fond of it; for a few weeks are sufficient to render it so coarse and 
hard that animals refuse it, or eat sparingly. 

A few testimonials are here quoted to give an idea of the produc- 
tiveness and value of this plant. In a letter published in the Eural 
Carolinian for 1874, Mr N. B. Moore, who had for more than forty 
years grown crops, speaks of this grass under the name of Guinea 
grass. 

"My meadow consists of one hundred acres of alluvial land, near 
Augusta. * * * In winter I employ but four men, who are 
enough to work my packing-press ; in summer when harvesting, 
double that number. In autumn I usuallv scarifv both ways with 



For the Southern States. 77 



sharp, stoel-toothed harrows, and sow over the stubbk^ a peek of red 
clover i)er acre, which, with vohinteer vetches, comes off about the 
iiiiddk' of May. The second yield of clover is uniformly eaten up by 
grasshoppers. The tap root remains to fertilize the then coming- 
Guinea grass, which should be cut from two to three feet high. * * * 
On such land as mine, it will afford three or four cuttings if the sea- 
son is })ropitious. I use an average of five tons of gypsum soon after 
the first cutting, and about the same quantity of the best commercial 
fertilizers in March and April. * « * rjij^^ grass, which is cut 
before noon, is put up with horse sulky rakes, in cocks, before sun- 
down." 

Mr. Moore's income from this field was from seven thousand to ten 
thousand dollars a year. 

Mr. Goelsel, of Mobile, says: "It is undoubtedly the most profit- 
able soiling plant yet introduced, and also promises to be the plant for 
our Southern hay stacks, provided it can be cut every three or four 
weeks." 

Note. — Eecognizing all the above, I w^ould say, that great care must 
be taken not to sow this grass near cultivated lands. If done, it 
should not be allowed to go to seed, as the wind will blow them off 
from the stalks, and when it gets amongst cane or other crops, it 
causes a great deal of trouble. It is almost impossible to get it out of 
the land. 

RESCUE GRASS. 

(CeratocMoa australis or Bromus Schraderi.) 

It is an annual winter grass. It varies in the time of starting growth. 
I have seen it ready for mowing the first of October and furnish fre- 
quent cuttings till April. Again, it may not start before January, nor 
be ready to cut till February. This depends upon the moisture and 
depression of temperature. When once started, its growth after the 
successive cuttings or grazings is very rapid. It is tender, very sweet, 
and stock eat it greedily. It makes also a good hay. It produces an 
immense quantity of leaves. On loose soil some of it may be pulled 
out by animals grazing it. I have seen it bloom as early as November 
when the season has favored and no grazing or putting were permitted. 
Oftener it makes little start before January. But whether late or early 
starting, it may be grazed or mowed frequently, until April, it still will 
mature seed. It has become naturalized in limited portions of Texas, 
Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and perhaps other States. It is a 
very pretty grass in all its stages ; but especially when the culms two 
or three feet high are gracefully bending with the wieight of the dif- 
fuse panicle with its many pedicelled, flattened 8])ikelets, each an inch 
or more long and with twelve to sixteen flowers. 

I would not, however, advise sowing this grass on poor land with 
the expectation of getting a remunerative return. It tillers abundantly 
under favorable conditions. 



78 Blchard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING. 



The directions given here are for the Southern part of Louisiana. 
If applied to localities North of here, the time of planting will not be 
quite so early in sirring, and earlier in fall. For instance : the direc- 
tions for Januarj' will answer for February in the Northern part of 
this State and Southern part of Mississippi or Arkansas. In autumn, 
directions for September can be followed in August. In those sections, 
very little can be planted in November and December. 

JAMUARY. 

Sow Spinach, Mustard, Carrots, Beets, Parsnips and Leeks, the early 
varieties of Radish, and for the last crop, the Black Spanish. 

Sow Spring and Purple Top Turnip. Buta Baga may also be sown, 
for table use later in spring. 

Sow Lettuce, Endive, Cabbage, Broccoli, Kohlrabi and early Cauli- 
flower ; the latter best sown in a frame to be transplanted next month. 

Cress, Chervil, Parsley and Celery for cutting, should be sown this 
month. Sow Roquette and Sorrel. 

If the hot-bed has not been prepared already, make it at once to sow 
Egg Plant, Pepper and Tomatoes. 

Ail kinds of Herb seed may be sown during this month. Plant Peas 
for a general crop, towards the end of the month the Extra Early va- 
rieties may be planted. 

Plant Potatoes, but the Early Rose should not be planted before the 
latter end of this month. 

Divide and transplant Shallots. Transplant Cabbage plants sown 
in November. Onions, if not already set out, should be hurried with 
now, so they may have time to bulb. Those who desire to raise Onion 
sets, should sow the seed this month, as they may be used for setting- 
out early in the fall, and can be sold sooner than those raised from 
seed. Creole seed is the only kind w^hich can be used to raise sets from. 
Northern seed will not make sets. This I know from experience. 
Asparagus roots should be set out this month. 

Red Oats can be sown. I consider these and German Millet the two 
best forage plants for Louisiana. 

Cucumbers can be planted in the hot-bed ; they are mostly i^lanted 
here during November and December, but if the hot-bed is properly 
made, those planted in this month wall bear better than those |)lanted 
in November. ^ 

FEBRUARY. 

All winter vegetables can be sown this month, such as Spinach, 
Mustard, Carrots, Beets, Parsnip and Leeks. Also, the early varie- 
ties of Radishes and Spring and Purple Top Turnip, Swiss Chard and 
Kohlrabi. 

Sow for succession. Lettuce, Cabbage and Early Cauliflower ; if the 
season is favorable and the month of April not too dry the latter may 
succeed. 



For the Southern States. 79 



Cauliflowor and Cabbage plants should be transplanted ; Shallots 
divided and set out again. 

Sow Sorrel, Roquette, Chervil, Parsley, Cress and Celery, 

Peas of all kinds can be planted, especially the early varieties. The 
late kinds should be sown in January, but they may be planted dur- 
ing this month. 

This is the time to plant the general crop of Potatoes. On an aver- 
age they will succeed better when planted during this, than during 
any other month. 

Herb seeds should be planted, tender varieties best sown in a frame, 
and transplanted into the open ground afterwards. 

Asparagus roots should be planted ; this is the proper month to sow 
the seed of this vegetable. 

Plants in the hot-bed will require attention ; give air when the sun 
shines and the weather is pleasant. If too thick, thin out so thej^ may 
become sturdy. 

Bush Beans can be commenced with this month ; Cucumbers, Squash 
and Melons may be tried, as they often succeed ; if protected by small 
boxes, as most gardeners protect them, there is no risk at all. 

Corn call be planted towards the end of this month. For market, 
the Adams Extra Early and Early White Flint are planted, I recom- 
mend the Sugar varieties for family use ; they are just as large as those 
mentioned, and Stowel's Evergreen is as large as any variety grown. 

Mangel Wurtzel and Sugar Beet should be sown in this month for 
stock. Sweet Potatoes can be put in a bed for si)routing, so as to 
have early slij>s, 

MARCH. 

Sow Beets, Radish, Cabbage, early varieties; Kohlrabi, Lettuce, 
Spinach, Mustard, Carrots, Swiss Chard and Leek. 

Also, Celery for cutting. Parsley, Roquette, Cress and Chervil. The 
latter part of the month sow Endive. Of Lettuce, the Royal Cabbage 
and Perpignan ; the White Coss is a favorite variety 4oy spring ; the 
Butterhead will run into seed too quickly and should not be sowg, later 
than the middle of February in this latitude. 

Plant a full supply of Bush and Pole Beans, For Lima Beans bet- 
ter to wait till towards the end of the month, as they rot easily when 
the ground is not warm enough, or too wet. 

Squash, Cucumbers, Melons and Okra can be planted. The remark 
in regard to Lima Beans holds good for Okra. Early varieties of Peas 
may still be planted. 

Tomatoes, Egg Plants and Peppers can be set out in the open ground, 
and seed sown for a later crop. Plant Sweet Corn. 

Potatoes can be planted ; all depends upon the season. Some years 
they do as w^ell as those planted during last month. 

Beans are hard to keep in this climate, and therefore very few are 
planted for shelling purposes. With a little care however, they can be 
kept, but they ought not to be planted before the first of August, so that 
they may ripen when the weather gets cooler. When the season is 
favorable leave them out till dry ; gather the pods and expose them a 



Pilchard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



few days to the sun. It is best to shell them at once, and after they 
are shelled put them to air and sun again for a few days longer. Sacks 
are better to keep them in, than barrels or boxes. The Eed and White 
Kidney are generally the varieties used for drying. Beans raised in 
spring are hard to keep, and if intended for seed they should be pur 
up in bottles, or in tin boxes, and a little cami)hor sprinkled between 
them . 
Sweet potatoes should be planted. 

APRIL. 

Sow Bush, Pole and Lima Beans, Sweet Corn, Cucumber. Squash. 
Melons and Okra. 

Beets, Carrots, Swiss Chard, Eadish, Lettuce, Mustard, Endive. 
Eoquette, Cress, Parsley, Chervil and Celery for cutting. 

Sow Tomatoes, Egg Plant and Pepper for succession. It is rather 
late to sow Cabbage seed now, but if sown, the early varieties only can 
be successfully used. Kohlrabi can still be sown, but it is best to sow- 
it thinly in drills' a foot apart, and thin out to four inches in the rows. 

Towards the end of this month a sowing of the late Italian Giant 
Cauliflower can be made. It is very large, and takes from eight to 
nine months before it matures, so has to be sown early. It is always 
best to make a couple of sowings, .so that in case one should fail the 
other maybe used. This variety is hardier than the French and Ger- 
man kinds. A good plan is to sow the seed in boxes, elevated two 
feet or more above the ground, as it will keep the cabbage fly off. The 
plants should be overlooked daily, and all green cabbage worms or 
other vermin removed. 

Sweet potato Slips, for early crop, can be planted out. Early Irish 
Potatoes will be fit to dig now, and the ground they are taken out of 
]nay be planted with Corn, Beans, Squash, etc. 

Sow Pumpkins of both kinds, the Field and the Cashaw. 

German Millet should be sown this month. The ground ought to be 
well plowed an^ harrowed. Three pecks of seed is the quantum to be 
sown per acre. It will be w^ell to roll the ground after sowing, and the 
seed will require no other covering. If no roller is handy, some brush 
tied together ought to be passed over the ground sown. For hay, it 
should be cut when in flower. Every planter should give it a trial. 

MAY. 

Very few varieties of vegetables can be sown during this montli. 
Many of the winter varieties will not do well if sown now. The grounds 
should now be occupied with growing crops. 

Where potatoes and Onions are taken up, Corn, Melons. Cucumbers, 
Squash and Pumpkin may be planted. 

Xothing of the Cabbage kind, except the Creole Cabbage seed, can 
be sown this month. It is supposed to stand the heat better than the 
other varieties, but it makes only loose heads, and runs up to seed as 
early as the end of November. 

Yellow and white summer Radish and Endive should be S':)w-n. Let- 
tuce requires much water during hot weather, and if neglected, it will 



For the Southern States. 81 



become hard and tasteless. The Perpignari is the best kind for sum- 
mer use. Okra can still be sown. 

The first sowing of White Solid Celery is to be made this month. 
The seed requires to be shaded, and if the weather is dry, should be 
regularly watered. Late Italian Cauliflower should be sown. 

Cow Peas can be planted between the corn, or the crowders in rows ; 
the latter are the best to be used green. If they are sown for fertiliz- 
ing purposes, they are sown one bushel per acre, and plowed under 
when the ground is well covered ; or sometimes they are left till fall, 
when they commence to decay, and then plowed down. 

Sweet Potato Slips can be set out, taking advantage of an occasional 
rain ; if it does not rain they have to be watered. The tops of Shallots 
will commence to get dry; this indicates that they are fit to take up. 
Pull them up and expose to the sun for a few days and then store them 
away in a dry, airy place, taking care not to lay them too thick, as they 
are liable to heat. Lima and Pole Beans can be planted ; the Southern 
Prolific is the best variety for late planting. 

JUNE. 

This month is similar to the last, that is, not a great deal can be 
sown. The growing crops will require attention, as weeds grow fast. 
Plant Corn for the last supply of roasting ears. A few Water and Musk 
Melons may be planted. Cucumbers, Squash and Pumpkin planted 
this month generally do very well, but the first requires an abundance 
of water if the weather is dry. 

Southern Prolific Pole Beans may be planted during this month. 
Continue to set out Sweet Potato Vines. 

Sow Yellow and White Summer Radish, sow Endive for salad; this 
is raised more easily than the Lettuce. 

Lettuce can be sown, but it requires more care than most people are 
willing to bestow. Soak the seeds for half an hour in water, take 
them out and put them in a piece of cloth and place in a cool spot, un- 
der the cistern, or if convenient, in an ice-box. Keep the cloth moist 
and in two or three days the seeds will sprout. Then sow them ; best 
to do so in the evening and give a watering. 

If the seed is sown without being sprouted, ants will be likely to carry 
it away before it can germinate, and the seedsman be blamed for sell- 
ing seed that did not grow. This sprouting has to be done from May 
to September, depending upon the weather. Should the weather be 
moist and cool in the fall it can be dispensed with. Some sow late Cab- 
bage for winter crop in this month, saying that the plants are easier 
raised during this than the two following months. I consider this month 
too soon ; plants will become too hard and long-legged before they can 
be j^lanted out. 

This is the last month to sow the Late Italian Cauliflower ; towards 
the end, the Early Italian Giant Cauliflower can be sown. Some culti- 
vators transplant them, w^hen large enough, at once into the open 
ground ; others plant them first into flowerpots and transplant them 
into the ground later. If transplanted at this time, they will require 
to be shaded for a few^ days, till they commence to grow. 

Sow Tomatoes for late crop during the latter part of this month. 
11 



82 Puchard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden. Manual 



JULY. 

Plant Pole Beans ; also Bush Beans towards the end of the month. 
Sow Tomatoes in the early part for the last crop. Some Corn for roast- 
ing ears may still be planted. Cucumbers can be planted for pickling. 
Early Giant Cauliflower can be sown. Sow Endive, Lettuce, Yellow 
and White summer Eadish. Where the ground is new, some Turnips 
and Kuta Bagas can be sown. Cabbage should be commenced with 
after the ioth of this month; Superior Flat Dutch, Improved Drum- 
head, St. Denis, or Bonneuil and Brunswick are the leading kinds. 
It is hard to say which is the best time to sow, as our seasons differ so 
much— some seasons we get frost early, other seasons not before Jan- 
uary. Cabbage is most easily hurt by frost when it is half grown ; 
when the plants are small, or when they are headed up, frost does not 
hurt much. It is always good to make two or three sowings. As a 
general thing, plants raised from July and August sown seed give the 
most satisfaction ; they are almost certain to head. September, in my 
experience, is the most ticklish month ; as the seed sown in that month 
is generally only half grown when we have some frosts, and therefore 
more liable to be hurt. But there are exceptions; five years ago the 
seed sown in September turned out best. Seed sown at the end of 
October and during November generally give good results, but if planted 
for market, will not bring as much as Cabbage sown in July and 
August. Brunswick is the earliest of the large growing kinds, and it 
should be sown in July and August, so that it may be headed up when 
the cold comes, as it is more tender than the Flat Dutch and Drum- 
head. The same may be said in regard to the St. Denis. All Cab- 
bages require strong, good soil, but these two varieties particularly. 
Brunswick makes also a very good spring cabbage when sown at the 
end of October. The standard varieties, the Superior Fiat Dutch and 
Improved Drumhead, should be sown at the end of this month and 
during next. It is better to sow plenty of seeds than to be short of 
plants. I would prefer one hundred plants raised in July and August 
to four times that amount raised in September. It is very hard to 
protect the young plants from ravages of the fly. Strong tobacco water 
is as good as anything else for this purpose, or tobacco stems cut fine 
and scattered over the ground will keep them off to some extent. As 
the plants have to be watered, the smell of the tobacco will drive the 
flies away. 

AUGUST. 

This is a very active month for gardening in the South. Plant 
Bush Beans, Extra Early and Washington Peas. Sow late Cabbages 
and Drumhead Savoy, also Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts and Kale. The 
Early Italian Giant Cauliflower may still be sown, but now is" the 
proper time to sow the Half Early Paris, Asiatic and other early vari- 
eties. 

Sow Parsley, Eoquette, Chervil, Lettuce, Endive and Sorrel ; but in 
case of dry weather, these seeds will have to be watered frequently. 

Continue to sow Yellow Turnip Eadishes, and commence to sow red 
varieties, such as Scarlet Turnip, Half Long French, and Long Scarlet. 



For tli£ Southern States. 83 



Towards the end of the raonth the Black Spanish Kadish can be 
sown ; also, Swiss Chard. 

Sow Mustard and Cress; the former will generally do well. All 
kinds of Turnips and Ruta Bagas should be sown ; also, Kohlrabi. 

The seed of all kinds of Beets should be put in the ground. 

Towards the end of the month Carrots can be sown ; but the sowing 
of all vegetables at this time of the year depends much upon the sea- 
son. If we should have hot and dry weather, it is useless to do much, 
as seed cannot come up without being watered. White Solid Celery 
should be sown for a succession, and the Dwarf kinds for spring use. 

Shallots can be set out during this month ; also Onion Sets, especially 
if they are raised from Creole seed. The early part of the raonth is the 
proper time to plant Red and White Kidney Beans, for shelling and 
drying for winter use. 

Early Rose and other varieties of Potatoes should be planted early 
this month for a winter crop, and the latest of Tomato plants should be 
set out, if not done last month. If Celery plants are set out during this 
month they require to be shaded. 

SEPTEMBER. 

Most of the seeds recommended for last month can be sown this 
month, and some more added. 

In the early part Bush Beans can be planted, as they will bear be- 
fore frost comes. Plant Extra Early and early varieties of Peas. Sow 
Radishes of all kinds. Carrots, Beets, Parsnip, Salsify, Roquette, Cher- 
vil, Parsley, Sorrel, Cress, Lettuce, Endive, Leek, Turnips, Kohlrabi, 
Broccoli, Early Cauliflower, Kale, Celery, Corn Salad and Mustard. 

After the 15th of this month Creole Onion seed can be sown. This is 
an important crop, and should not be neglected. If it is very dry, 
cover the bed, after the seed has been sown, with green moss ; it will 
keep the ground moist, and the seed will come up more regularly. 
The moss has to be taken off as the young plants make their appear- 
ance. 

Celery plants may be set out in ditches prepared for that purpose. 
Cauliflower and Cabbage plants can be transplanted if the weather is 
favorable. 

If the weather is not too hot and dry, Spinach should be sown ; but it 
is useless to do so if the weather is not suitable. 

Cabbage can be sown, but it is much better to sow in August and 
transplant during this month. 

Set out Shallots. Sorrel should be divided and replanted. 

Sow Turnip-rooted Celery. 

OCTOBER. 

Artichokes should be dressed, the suckers or sprouts taken off, and 
new plantings made. 

Onion seed can still be sown ; but it is better to get the seed into the 
ground as soon as possible, so the plants get to be some size before the 
cold weather comes. 

Towards the end of the month, Black Eye Marrowfat Peas can be 
planted ; also English or Windsor Beans. 



84 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Sow Cabbage, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Kale, Spinach, 
Mustard, Swiss Chard, Carrots, Beets, Salsify, Leek, Corn Salad, Pars- 
ley, Eoquette, Chervil, Kohlrabi, Radish, Lettuce, Endive and Parsnip. 
Shallots from the first planting can be divided, and set out again. 
Salsify does very finely here, but is generally sown too late ; this is the 
proper month to sow the seed. The ground should be mellow and 
have been manured last spring. It should be spaded up very deeply ; 
as the size and smoothness of the roots depend upon the preparation 
of the soil. 

Water the Celery with soap sudb, and if the season has been favor- 
able, by the end of this month some may be earthed up. 

Sow Rye, Barley and Red Oats, Orchard Grass, Red and White Clo- 
ver, and Alfalfa Clover. Strawberry plants should be transplanted ; 
they cannot be left in the same spot for three or four years, as is done 
North. The Wilson's Albany and Longsworth's Prolific are the favor- 
ite varieties for the market. 

The Wilson's Albany do not make many runners here, but they form 
a stool something like the plants of violets, and these stools have to be 
taken up and divided. 

NOVEMBER. 

Continue to sow Spinach, Corn Salad, Radish, Lettuce, Mustard, 
Roquette, Parsley, Chervil, Carrots, Salsify, Parsnips, Cress and En- 
dive, also Turnips and Cabbage. Superior Elat Dutch and Improved 
Drumhead, sown in this month, make fine Cabbage in the spring. 

Artichoke should be dressed, if not already done last month. 

Sow Black Eye and other late varieties of Peas. Frost does not hurt 
them as long as they are small, and during this time of the year, they 
will grow but very slowly. English Beans xan be planted ; frost does 
not hurt them, and if riot planted soon they will not bear much. 

Manure for hot-beds should be looked after, and ought not to be 
over one month old. It should be thrown together in a heap, and 
when heated forked over again, so the long and short manure will be 
well mixed. The first vegetables generally sown in the hot-beds are 
Cucumbers ; it is best to start them in two or three inch pots, and when 
they have two rough leaves, transplant them to their place ; two good 
plants are sufBcient under every sash. 

DECEMBER. 

Not a great deal is planted during this month as the ground is gen- 
erally occupied by the growing crops. 

Plant Peas for a general crop ; some potatoes may be risked, but it 
is uncertain whether they will succeed or not. 

Sow Spinach, Roquette, Radish, Carrots, Lettuce, Endive and Cab- 
bage. ^ 

Early varieties of Cauliflower can be sown in a frame or sheltered 
situation, to be transplanted in February into the opep ground. Early j 
Cabbages, such as York, Oxheart and Wiuningstadt, may be sown. ! 

To those who wish to force Tomatoes, I will say that this is the { 
month to sow them. The best kind for that purpose is the Extra Early | 
Dwarf Red. It is really a good acquisition ; it is very dwarfish, very | 
productive, and of good size and bears the fruit in clusters. j 



For the Southern States. 85 



PLANTERS' AND GARDENERS' PRICE LIST. 



Cost of MaU'mg Seeds. Orders for ounces and ten cent papers are 
mailed free of postage, except Beans, Peas and Corn. If any of these 
in large papers are ordered by mail postage most be paid by the pur- 
chaser, or, I will send small sized papers and prepay the postage. On 
large sized papers of some varieties of Beans and Peas, the postage 
will cost more than the papers of same. On orders by the pound and 
quart an advance of sixteen cents per pound and thirty cents per quart 
must be added to qu()tations for postage. Beans are a very short crop. 
Al'ticllOke. pei- oz. per lb. 

Large Greeu Globe $0 50 $6 00 

Asparag^iis. 

Large Purple Top 10 1 00 

Beans, (Dwarf, Snap or Bush,) per quart. per gal. 

Extra Early Six Weeks or Newingtou Wonder $0 25 $1 00 

Early Red Speckled Valentine 25 ^ 100 

Early Mohawk Six Weeks . 25 .J 1 00 

Early Yellow Six Weeks 25 "^ 1 00 

Dwarf German Wax (Stringless) . . 30 g 1 20 

White Kidney ^ , 25 ^ 100 

Eed Speckled Freach , 25 §o 100 

Early China Red Eye 25 ^ 1 00 

Red Kidney 25 ^ 1 00 

Dwarf Golden Wax (New) , 30 a I 20 

fieaiis, (Pole ok Running), . ■'^ 

Large Lima 50 cc 2 00 

Caroline or Sewee 50 .2 2 00 

Horticultural or Wren's Egg , 40 S 1 50 

Dutch Case Knife 40 § 1 50 

German Wax (Stringless) 50 ^ 2 00 

Southern Prolific 50 'S 2 00 

Crease Back 50 ^ 2 00 

Beans, English, 

Broad Windsor 30 1 00 

Beet. per oz. per lb. 

Extra Early or Bassnno fO 10 |0 75 

Simon's Early Red Turnip 10 75 

Early Blood Turnip 10 75 

Long Blood 10 75 

Half Long Blood 10 75 

Egyptian Red Turnip 10 1 00 

Long Red Mangel Wurtzel 10 50 

White French or Sugar 10 50 

Silver or Swiss Chard 10 1 00 

Borecole or Curled Kale. 

Dwarf German Greens 15 1 00 

Broccoli. 

Purple Cape 30 4 00 

Brussels Sprouts 30 4 00 



8G Pik-hard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Cabbag'e* per oz. per lb. 

Early York , . 25 $2 50 

Early Large York 25 2 50 

Early Sngar Loaf 25 3 GO 

Early Large Osheart 25 3 00 

Early Wmningstadt 25 3 00 

Jersey Wakelit-ld 50 5 00 

Early Flat Datcli 25 3 00 

Large Flat Brunswick . . . . • 30 4 00 

ImproYed Large Late Drumheaa 30 4 00 

Sujjerior Large Late Flat Dutch 30 4 00 

ImproTed Early Summer 30 4 CO 

Eed Dutch (for Pickling) , ... 30 4 CO 

Green Globe Savoy 25 2 50 

Early Dwarf Savoy ..... 25 2 50 

Drumhead Savoy m 300 

St. Denis or Chou Bonneuil 30 4 00 

Caiiliflowerr 

Extra Early Paris 1 OO 12 00 

Half Early Paris ... 1 00 12 00 

Large Asiatic. ... 1 OO 12 00 

Early Erfurt 100 15 00 

Le Normand's Short Stemmed 1 00 15 00 

Early Itahan Ciiant 1 00 15 00 

Imperial . 1 00 12 00 

Late Italian Giant 1 00 15 00 

Xon Plus ritra 1 00 15 00 

Carrots. 

Early Scarlet Horn 10 1 20 

Half Long Scarlet French 10 1 20 

Half Long Luc 10 120 

Improved Long Orange 10 1 00 

Long Eed, without core 10 1 20 

St. Valerie (New) 10 1 20 

Celery, 

Large White Solid 30 4 00 

Saiidringham's Dwarf \\Tiite 30 4 00 

Ljirge Ribbed Dwarf (New) 30 4 00 

Turnip-Rooted 30 4 00 

Cutting 15 2 00 

Chervil. 

Green Curled 20 2 00 

Collards 20 2 00 

Corn Salad 20 2 00 

Corn. per qnart. per gal. 

Extra Early Dwarf Sugar.... 25 SO 80 

Adams' Extra Early 20 60 

Early Sugar or Sweet 20 75 

Stowell's Evergreen Sutrar 20 75 



For the Southern States. 87 



Corn, — Continued. per quart. per gal. | 

Golden Dent Gourd Seed 20 00 i 

Early Yellow Canada 20 60 I 

Large White Flint 20 60 

Blunt's Prolific, Field (Now) 20 75 | 

Cress» per oz. per lb. ; 

Curled or Pepper Grass 10 $1 (K) j 

Broad-leaved 20 n 00 | 

Cucuiii]>er. j 

Improved Early White Spine 15 1 50 | 

Early Frame 15 1 25 j 

Long Green Turkey 20 2 00 ! 

Early Cluster 15 1 50 \ 

Gherkin or Burr (for pi<*kling^ .... , 20 JJ 00 ' 

Eg^^plant. 

Large Purple or New Orleans Market 50 (i 00 ! 

£ndive. i 

Green Curled 20 ii 50 | 

Extra Fine Curled 20 2 50 | 

Broad-leaved or EscaioUe 20 '2 50 j 

Kolil Rabi. .; 

Early White Vienna ...., 25 4 00 | 

LiCck. I 

Large London Flag , 25 3 00 j 

Large Carentan 30 4 00 j 

liettuce. 

Early Cabbage or White Batter 25 *2 50 | 

Improved Koyal Cabbage 25 3 00 i 

Brown Dutch 30 3 00 i 

Drumheiid Cabbage 25 '2 50 

White Paris Coss.. '....-. 30 300 

Perpignau 30 4 00 j 

Improved Large Passion 30 4 00 j 

Melon, Musk or Canteloupe. ! 

Netted Nutmeg 10 1 00 

Netted Citron 10 100 

Pine Apple 10 1 00 

Early White Japan 10 i 25 

Persian or Cassaba 15 1 25 

New Orleans Market 20 2 00 

j Melon, TTater. 

Mountain Sweet 10 100 

Mountain Sprout 10 1 00 

Improved Gipsey 15 1 50 

Ice Cream, (White Seeded) 15 1 50 

Orange 20 2 00 

Battle Snake 15 1 50 

Cuban Queen 15 1 50 

Scaley Bark 15 2 00 



Bichard Frotscher's AJmanar (uid Garden ITamicd 



MustardL. per oz. 

"White or Yellow Seeded 10 

Large-leaved 10 

Nastiirtium. 

Tali _. 25 

Dwarf . 30 

Okra. 

Tall Growing 10 

Dwarr 10 

Onion. 

Yellow^ Dutch or Strassburg 25 

Large E«d "Wethersfield 25 

White or Silver Skin 25 

Creole 25 

Italian Onion. 

New Queen 35 

Giant Bermuda ... 25 

«;hallots. 

Parsley. 

Plain Leaved , 

Double Curled , 

Improved Garnishing 



er R), 


40 


1 00 


3 00 


4 00 


75 


75 


4 00 


4 00 


4 00 


3 00 


5 00 


3 00 



10 


1 00 


10 


1 25 


15 


1 50 



Parsnip. 

Hollow Crown or Sugar 10 1 00 

Peas. pey quart. ppr gal. 

Extra Early, {,Fir.st and Best) 30 S 

Tom Thumb 30 '^ 

Early Washington 20 -^ 

Laxton's Alpha 40 &, 

Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod 30 Z 

Champion of England 30 ^ 

McLean's Advancer 30 > 

McLean's Little Gem 30 ^ 

Laxton's Prolific Long Pod 40 -^ 

Eugene 30 "S 

Dwarf Blue Imperial 30 ^ 

Royal Dwarf Marrow 20 ^ 60 

Black-Eyed Marrowfat 15 B 60 

Large White Marrowfat 20 '7 60 

Dwarf Sugar 50 =| 2 00 

Tall Sugar 50 | 2 00 

American "Wonder 50 p^. 200 

Field or Cow Peas Market prifce. 

Pepper. per oz. per lb. 

Bell or Bull Nose 40 4 00 

Sweet Spanish Monstrous 40 5 00 

Long Bed Cayenne 40 4 00 

Bed Cherry 40 4 00 





00 


1 00 




70 




20 




00 




20 




20 




00 




50 




20 




00 



For lite SoiitJierii States. 



Potatoes. 

Early Kose ^ 

Breese's Peerless \ Prices vary uccord- 

Kussets I ing to market. 

Extra Early Vermont I Quotations will 

Snowfiake I be given on appli- 

Beaiity of Hebron | cation. 

White Elephant / 

Fotiitoes, S\ieet. 

. Yam . . j Prices vary according to market. Quota- 
Shanghai or California Yam. j" tions will be given on application, 

Plinipkin. per quart. per gal. 

Kentucky Field 25 $1 00 

per oz. per lb. 

Large Cheese 10 f 75 

Cashaw Crook-Neck 10 1 00 

Radish. 

Early Long Scarlet 10 80 

Early Scarlet Turnip 10 1 00 

Y^ellow Summer Turnip 10 1 00 

Early Scarlet Olive Shaped 10 1 00 

White Summer Turnip .' 10 1 00 

Scarlet Half Long French 10 80 

Black Spanish (Winter) 10 1 00 

Chinese Eose (Winter). 15 1 50 

Roquette 20 3 00 

Salsify (American) , 25 3 00 

Spiaiacli. 

Extra Large-leaved Savoy . 10 50 

Broad-leaved Flanders 10 50 

SquasSi. 

Early Bush or Patty Pan 15 1 25 

Long Green or Summer Crook-Neck .... 15 1 25 

London Vegetable Marrow 20 2 00 

The Hubbard 15 1 25 

Boston Marrow. .' 15 1 50 

Tomato. 

Extra Early Dwarf Red , 30 4 00 

Early Large Smooth Bed 20 2 50 

Tildeu 25 3 00 

Trophy (selected) 40 4 00 

Large Yellow 30 4 00 

Acme (new) 30 4 00 

Paragon 30 4 00 

Livingston's Perfection 30 4 00 

Livingston's Favorite 40 5 00 

12 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Turnip. per oz. per Yb 

Eariy Red or Purple Top (strap-leaved) 10 60 

Early Wbite Flat Dutch fstrap-leaved) 10 60 

Large White Globe 10 60 

White Spring 10 60 

Yellow Aberdeen 10 60 

Golden Ball 10 60 

Purple Top Ruta Baga 10 60 

Munich, Early Purple Top 10 1 00 

Purple Top Globe 10 60 

Improved Kuta Baga 10 60 

§\Teet and Medicinal Herbs. per package. 

Anise 10c . 

Balm 10 

Basil 10 

Bene 10 

Borage 10 

Caraway 10 

Dill...... 10 

Fennel 10 

Lavender 10 

Majoram 10 

Pot Marigold 10 

Rosemary 10 

Rue 10 

Sage 10 

Summer Savory 10 

Thyme 10 

"Wormwood 10 

Orass and Field Seeds. 

Red Clover \ 

White Dutch Clover \ 

Alsike Clover 1 

Alfalfa or French Lucerne 

Kentucky Blue Grass . " ° 

Rescue Grass 

Hungarian Grass f 5 '& 

German Millet \ Ph "^ 

Rye /"I o 

Barley I g 

Red or Rust Proof Oats .1 ^ -2 

Sorghum I -g 

Broom Corn , I ^ 

Buckwheat . . 

Johnson Grass 

Tall Meadow Oat Grass 

Prices of larger quantities of seed will be giveu on ai^plication. 
Peas and Beans very low if ordered by the bushel. 



For the Southern States. 



The following letter on "Alfalfa" or "Lucerne," has been written 
by E. M, Hudson, Esq., a gentleman ^ho is a close observer, and has 
given the subject a great deal of attention ; it will be found very in- 
structive. 

Villa Friedheim, 
Mobile County, Ala., September 7, 1878. 

Mr. E. Frot^cher, New Orleans, La. : 

Dear Sir : — Your letter of the 3d inst. has just reached me, and I 
cheerfully comply with your request to give you the results of my ex- 
periments with Lucerne or Alfalfa, and my opinion of it as a forage 
plant for the South. 

I preface my statement with the observation that my experiments 
have been conducted on a naturally poor, piney woods soil (which 
would be classed as a sandy soil), varying in depth from six inches to 
one foot. But I have a good red clay sub-soil, which enables the soil 
to retain the fertilizers applied to it, thus rendering it susceptible of 
permanent enriching. 

Three years since, when my attention was first directed to Alfalfa, 
I sought the advice of the editor of the Journal of Progress, Professor 
Stelle, who informed me that, after attempting for several years to 
cultivate it, he had desisted. He stated that the plant, at Citronelle, 
in this county, died out every summer, not being able to withstand 
the hot suns of our climate. Discouraged but not dismayed, I deter- 
mined to test the matter on a small scale at first. Having procured 
some seed in March, 1876, I planted them on a border in my garden, 
and gave neither manure nor work that season. The early summer 
here that year was very dry ; there was no rain whatever from the first 
of June to the 23d of July, and from the 2d of August to the 15th of 
November not a drop of rain fell on my place. Yet during all this 
time, my Alfalfa remained fresh, bloomed, and was cut two or three 
times. On the 1st of November 1 dug some of it to examine the habit 
of root-growth, and to my astonishment found it necessary to go 22 
inches below the surface to reach anything like the end of the *top 
roots. At once it was apparent that the plant was, by its very habit 
of growth, adapted to hot and dry climates. It is indeed a "child of 
the sun." 

Encouraged by this experiment, in which I purposely refrained from 
giving the Alfalfa any care beyond cutting it occasionally, last year, 
I proceeded on a larger scale, planting both spring and fall, as I have 
done again this year to ascertain the best season for putting in the 
seed. My experience teaches that there is no ])reference to be given to 
spring sowings over those of autumn, pror?c/i?rZ only, there be enough 
moisture in the soil to make the seed germinate, which they do more 
quickly and more surely than the best turnips. Two winters have 
proved to me that the Alfalfa remains green throughout the winter in 
this latitude, 25 miles North of Mobile, and at an altitude of 400 feet 
above tide-water. Therefore I should prefer fall sowing which will 
give the first cutting from the first of March to the 1st of April follow- 
ing. This season my first cutting was made on the 1st of April ; and 
I have cut it since regularly every four or six v\^eeks, according to the 



92 Bi chard Frotscher's AJmanoc a, id Garden JlanunJ 



weather, to cure for hay. Meanwhile a portion lias been cut almost 
• laily for feeding green, or soiling. Used in the latter way i for under 
no circumstance^ must it erer be pastured', I am able to give my stock 
fresh, green food, fully four weeks before the native wild grasses com- 
mence to put out. I deem it best to cut the day before, what is fed 
-Teen, in order to let it become thoroughly wilted before using. After 
a large number of experiments with horses, mules, cattle and swine. I 
can aver that in no instance, from ^^larch to XoTember. hare I found 
a case when any of these animals would not give the preference to Al- 
falfa over every kind of grass (also soiled j known in this region. And. 
while Alfalfa makes a sweet and nutritious hay eagerly eaten by all 
kinds of stock, it is as a forage plant for soiling, which is available for 
at least nine months in the year, that I esteem it so highly. The hay 
is easily cured, if that which is cut in the forenoon is thrown into small 
cocks at noon, then spread out after the dew is off next morning, 
sunned for an hour, and at once hauled into the barn. By this method 
the leaves do not fall off, which is sure to be the case, if the Alfalfa :- 
exposed to a day or two of hot sunshine. 

It has been my habit to precede the Alfalfa with a clean crop — 
usually Eutabagas, after which I sow clay peas, to be turned in about 
the last of July. About the middle of September or later I have the 
land plowed, the turn-plow being followed by a deep sub-soil plow or 
scooter. After this the land is fertilized and harrowed until it is thor- 
•ughly pulverized and all lumps broken up. The fertilizers employed 
::'y me are 500 lbs. fine bone-dust phosphate of lime ■ and lC«Xi lbs. cot- 
ton seed hull ashes per acre. These ashes are very rich in potash 
and phosphates, containing nearly 45 per cent, of the phospate of lime 
— ^the two articles best adapted to the wants of this plant. I sow all 
my Alfalfa with the Matthew's Seed Drill, in rows 10 inches apart. 
Broad-cast would be preferable, if the land was perfectly free from 
grass and weeds ; but, as it takes several years of clean culture to put 
the land in this condition, sowing in drills is practically the best. Xo 
seed sower known to me can be compared with the Matthew's Seed 
Drill. Its work is evenly and regularly done, ana with a rapidity 
that is astonishing ; for it opens the drill to any desired depth, drops 
the seed, covers and rolls them, and marks the line for the next drill 
at one operation. It is simple and durable in its structore, and is the 
greatest labor-saving machine of its kind ever devised for hand-work. 

When my Alfalfa is about three inches high. I work it with the Mat- 
thew's Hand Cultivator. First, the front tooth of the cultivator is 
taken out. by which means the row is straddled and all the grass cut 
out close to the plant ; then the front tooth being replaced, the culti- 
vator is passed between the rows, completely clean ing the middles of 
all foul growth. As often as required to keep down grass, until ^he 
Alfalfa is large enough to cut, the Matthew's Hand Cultivator is 
1 tassed between the rows. 

Alfalfa re«:iuires three years to reach perfection, but even the first 
year the yield is larger than most forage plants, and after the second 
it is enormous. The land must, however, be made rich at first : a top- 
dressing every three years is all that will thereafter be required. The 



For the Southern States. 93 



seed must be very lightly covered, and should be rolled, or brushc^d 
in, if not sowed with a Matthew's Seed Sower. 

Whenever the plant is in bloom it must ■ be cut ; for, if the seed be 
left to mature, the stems become hard and woody. Also, whenever it 
turns yellow, no matter at what age, it must be cut or mowed ; for the 
yellow color shows the presence of some disease, or the work of some 
small insect, both of which seems to be remedied by moving promptly. 
My experience leads me to the conclusion that fully five tons of cured 
hay per acre may be counted on if proper attention be given to deep 
plowing, subsoiling, fertilizing and cleanliness of the soil. These 
things are indispensable, and without them no one need attempt to 
cultivate Alfalfa. 

In conclusion, I will remark that I have tried the Lucerne seed im- 
ported by you from France, side by side with the Alfalfa seed sent me 
by Trumbull & Co., of San Francisco, and I cannot see the slightest 
difference in appearance, character, quantity or quality of yield, or 
hardiness. They are identical ; both have germinated equally well, 
that is to say, perfectly. 

In closing, I cannot do better than refer you to the little treatise of 
Mr. C. W. Howard, entitled: "A Manual of the Cultivation of the 
Grasses and Forage Plants at the South." Mr. Howard, among the 
very first to cultivate Lucerne in the South, gives it the preference 
over all other forage plants whatever. My experience confirms all 
that Mr. How^ard claims for it. Certainly, a plant that lasts a genera- 
tion is worthy of the bestowal of some time, patience and money to 
realize what a treasure they can secure for themselves. I confidently 
believe that in ten years from this date the Alfalfa will be generally 
cultivated throughout the entire South. 

I am, respectfully yours, 

E. M. HUDSON, 

Counsellor at Law, 

20 Carondelet Street, 

New Orleans. 



94 Bichard Frotschers Almanac and Garden Manual 



FLOWER SEEDS, 



The following list of Flower seeds is not very large, but it contains 
all which is desirable and which will do well in the Southern climate. 
I import them from one of the most celebrated gTowers in Prussia, 
and they are of the best ciuality. There are very few or no flower 
seeds raised in this country, and Northern houses, which publish 
large lists and catalogues, get them from just the same sources as 
myself ; but they, on an average, sell much higher than I do. Some 
varieties which are biennial in Europe or North, flower here the first 
season ; in fact, if they do not, they generally do not flower at all, as 
they usually are destroyed by the continued long heat of summer. 
Some kinds grow C[uicker here and come to a greater perfection than 
in a more Northern latitude. 

Flower seeds require a little more care in sowing than vegetable 
seeds. The ground should be well pulverized and light enough not to 
bake after a rain. Some of the more delicate and finer varieties are 
better sown in boxes or seed pans, where they can be better handled 
and protected from hard rains or cold weather; the other kinds do 
not transplant well and are better sown at once where they are to 
remain, or a few seeds may be sown in small pots to facilitate trans- 
planting into the garden without disturbing the plants, when large 
enough. Some have very fine seeds which the mere pressing of the 
hand or spade to the soil will cover ; others may be covered one-fourth 
of an inch, according to their size. Watering should be done care- 
fully, and if not done with a syringe, a watering pot where the holes 
of the spout are very fine should be used. 

By setting the plants out, or sowing the seeds in the border, con- 
sideration should be taken of the height, so that the taller varieties 
may be in the middle and the dwarf kinds on the edge of the bed. 

The seeds are put up at ten cents a package, one dollar per dozen, 
except a few rare or costly kinds, where the price is noted. All flower 
seeds in packages are mailed free of postage to the purchaser. Where 
there is more than one color, I generally import them mixed, as I find 
that most of my customers do not wish to purchase six packages or 
more of one variety, in order to get all the colors. One package of 
Asters, Zinnia, Phlox, Chinese Pink, German Stocks. Petunia, Portu- 
laca and others, vrill always contain an equal mixture of the best 
colors. 



For the Southern States. 



95 



ABthea Rosea. Hollyhock. This 
flower has been much improved of late 
years, and is very easily cultivated. Can 
be sown from October till Ai)ril. Very 
hardy ; from four to six feet high. 

Alyssiim niaritiBiiuin. Sweet 
Alyssum. Very free flowering i^lants 
about six inches high, with white flowers ; 
very frangrant. Sow from October till 
Ai)ril. 

Aiitirhintifin isiajus. Snapdragon. 
Choice mixed. Showy plant of various 
colors. About two feet high. Should be 
sown early, if perfect flowers are desired. 
Sow from October till March. 

Aster. Queen Margaret. German Quilled. Perfect double quilled 
flowers, of all shades, from white to dark purple and crimson. One 
and a half feet high. 




Altbea Rosea. 





German Quilled Aster. 



Trufaut's Paeonv Flowered Aster, 



Aster. Trufaut's Paeony Flowered Perfection. Large double 
paeony shaped flowers, of flne mixed colors ; one of the best varieties. 
Two feet nigh ; sow from December till March. Asters should be sown 
in a box or in pots and kept in a green-house, or near a window ; when 
large enough trelnsplant into the border. Take a shovel of compost 
and mix with the ground before planting. Put three to four plants 
together and they will show better. They can be cultivated in pots. 



96 



Itichard Frotsche7'''s Almanac and Garden Manual 





Adonis auturanalis. 

Adonis autumnalss. Flos Adonis 
or Pheasant's Eye. Showy crimson flower, 
of long duration. Sow from November till 
April. One foot high. 

Ams&rstntliiis caiiclatiis. Love Lies 
Bleeding. Long red racemens with blood 
red flowers. Very graceful ; three feet high. 

Aniaranthiis tricoBor. Three colored 
Amaranth. Very showy ; cultivated on 
account of its leaves, which are green, 
yellow and red. Two to three feet high. 

Amarasitlius bicolor. Two colored 
Amaranth. Crimson and green variegated 
foliage ; good for edging. 



Amaranthus caudatns. 




^ 



Amaranthus Tricolor. 
AiBiaraiBtlius atropitrpureiis.. Crimson Amaranth. Long- 
drooping spike of purple flowers. Four feet high. 





Amarantlms Salieifolius, Fountain Plant, 



Double Daisy. 



For the Southern States. 



97 



4fnaraiitlius Salieifolius. Fountciin Plant. Rich coloroi] 
foliage, very graceful. Five to six feet high. Sow from February till 
June. 




Aquilegia or Columbine. 



Balsamma Camelia Flowered. 



Aquileg-fa.. Columbine. A showy and beautiful flower of 
different colors ; two feet high. Sow from October till March. Should 
be sown early if floAvers are wished ; if sown late will not bloom till 
next season. 

Balsamina Ilorteiisis. Lady Slipper, A well known flower 
of easy culture. Requires good ground to produce double flowers. 

Balsamina. Camelia flowered. Very double and beautiful 
colors. 

Balsainina eaiaielia flora alba. Pure white flowers, used 
for bouquets ; about two feet high. Sow from February till August. 

Bellis Peremiis. Daisy. Finest double mixed variety; four 
inches high. From October till January. 

Cacalia coccinea. Scarlet Tassel Flower. A profuse flowering 
plant, with tassel-shaped flowers in cluster ; one and a half feet. Sow 
from February till May. 
13 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 





Cacalia coccinea. 



Celocia cristata. 



CaSeMdiila ©Htciiialis. Pot Marigold. A plant which, properly 
speaking, belongs to the aromatic herbs, but sometimes cultivated 
for the flowers, which vary in different shades of yellow ; one and a 
hall feet. From January till April. 

Cei^cia ca'istatsi, Dwarf Cock's-comb. Well known class of 
flowers which are very ornamental, producing large heads of crimson 
and yellov/ flowers ; one to two feet high. Sow from February till 
August. 




Cherianthus Cheri. 



€herian£lius Clieri. Wall Flower, This flower is highly 
esteemed in some parts of Europe, but does not grow very perfectly 
here, and seldom produces the large spikes of double flowers which 
are very fragrant. Two feet high. November till March. 



For the Southern States. 



99 



CaifiiipaBiiiisi ss>cculiiiat. Bell-Flower, or Venus' lookin<>-- 
glass. Free flowering plants ol" different colors, from white to dark 
blue ; one foot high. Sow from December till March. 



WMM^ 





Centaurea cvanus. 



Ct'iiiaurea snavoleiis. 



Cciitaurca cyaiiiis. Bottle Pink, A hardy annual of easy 
culture, of various colors ; two feet high. 

Ceiitawrea snavoIesBS. Yellow, Sweet Sultan. December to 
April. 

Ciiierai'ia liyt>a'Ma. A beautiful green-house plant. Seed 
should be sown in October or November, and they will flow^er in spring. 
Per package 25 cents. 

DJaaitlaias BartjatMS. Sweet William. A well known plant 
which has been much improved of late years. Their beautiful colors 
make them very showy. Should be sown early, otherwise they will 
not flower the first spring ; one and a half feet high. October till April. 





Dianthus barbatus. 



Diantbns cbinensis double. 



©iantlitis Clsinensis. Chinese Pink. A beautiful class of 
annuals of various colors, which flower very profusely in early spring 
and summer ; one foot high. From October till April. 

I>iaiit2ii8S Ilecldewi^S-Bi. Japan Pink. This is the most showy 
of any of the annual pinks. The flowers are very large and of brilliant 



100 



Bichard Frotsclier''s Almanac and Garden Manual 




colors ; one foot high. Sow from October 
till April. 

l>iaiitlius pliiimaris. Border Pink. A 
fragrant pink used for edging. The flowers 
are tinged, generally pink or w^hite with a dark 
eye. Does not flower the first year; two feet 
high. Sov\' from January till April. 

I>iaiitlius caryopliyllMS. Carnation 
Pink. This is a well known and highly es- 
teemed class of flowers. They are double, of 
different colors, and very fragrant ; can be sown 
either in fall or spring; should be shaded 
during midsummer and protected from hard 
rains ; three to four feet high. November till 
April. 




Dianthus Picotee, Early Dwarf Double Carnation Pink. 

l>iaiiUlins Picotee. Finest hybrids. Stage flowers saved from 
a collection of over 5O0 named varieties ; per package 50c. 

©iaiitliias piimila. Early dwarf flowering Carnation Pink. 
If sown early this variety will flow^er the first season. They are quite 
dwarfish and" flower veryprof iisely. November till April. 

Delpliisiiuni Iiifiperial. fl. i>I. Imperial flowering Larkspur. 
Very handsome variety of symmetrical form. Mixed colors ; bright 
red," dark blue and red stripes : 1| feet high. 

]>eS]|>lfii3imHg ajaeis. Eocket 
Larkspur. Mixed colors ; very showy ; 
two and a half feet. 

I>elplaimiiin Cliiiiensis. Dwarf 
China Larkspur. Mixed colors ; very 
pretty; one foot high. November till 
April. 

Note. — None of the above three x^- 
rieties transplant well, and are better 
sown at once where they are intended 
to remain. 

Dablia. Large Flowering Dahlia. 
Seed sown in the spring will flower by 
June. Yery pretty colors are obtained 

from seed ; the semi-double or single 
Delphinium Chinensis. 




For the Southern States. 



101 



ones can be pulled i\\^ as they bloom ; but those seeds which are saved 
from fine double varieties will produce a i^ood per centage of double 
flowers. February till June. 

£sch<^cSioltxia Califoriiica. California Poppy. A very free 
flowering plant, good for masses. Does not transplant well. One 
foot high, December till April. 





Gaillarclia bicolor. Purple Globe Amaranth. 

Oaillardia bicolor. Two colored Gaillardia. Very showy 
plants, which continue to flower for a long time. Flowers red, bor- 
dered with orange yellow. One and a half feet high. January till 
April. 




Geranium Zonale. 



102 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



GriHia. Mixed Gillia. Dwarf plants, which flower freely of vari- 
ous colors. One foot. December till April. 

Oomptirena alba and j»urpiirea. White and Crimson Batch- 
elor Button or Globe Amaranth. Well known variety of flowers ; very 
early and free flowering; continue to flower for a long time. Two 
feet high. From February till August. 



flowering varieties of different colors ; should be sown in seed pans, 
and when large enough trans]>lanted into pots, where they can be left, 
or transplanted in spring into the open ground. 




Geranium Pelargonium. 

Creraiiiiaata peSarg'oniuisi. Large flowering Pelargonium, Spot- 
ted varieties, 25 cents per package. 

Creranlum odoralissiifiaa. Apple-scented Geranium, Cultivar- 
ted on account of its fragrant leaves ; 25 cents per package. Both of 
these kinds are pot plants, and require shade during hot weather. 
Should be sown during fall and winter. 

Oypsopliifia paiiieulata. Gypsophila. A graceful plant with 
white flowers, which can be used for bouquets. 
December to April. 




Heliotropiuin. Mixed varieties 
with clarlt and li<>-ht shaded flowers. 
A well known plant, esteemed for the 
fragrance of its flowers, which are pro- 
duced during the whole summer in 
great profusion. This plant is gener- 
ally propagated by cuttings, but can 
also be raised from seed. Should be 
sown in a hot-bed if sown early. 

If elaciirysiim monstrosuisi al- 
bum. White Everlasting Flower. 
Very showy double flowers. One and 
a half feet high. 

Hclielfirysiini EMonstrosuni 
rubruni. Eed Everlasting Flower. 
Very ornamental. One and a half feet 
high. December till April. Does not transplant well. 

Heliantlaus U. pi. Double Flowering Sunflower. A well known 
plant, with showy yellow flowers. The double is often cultivated in 
the flower garden. The single varieties are cultivated mostly for the 
seed. They are said to be anti-malarious. Four feet high. February 
till May. 

Iberis ainara. White candytuft. A well known plant raised a 
good deal by florists for bouquets. Can be sown at different times to 
have a succession of flowers. One foot high. 

Iberis uenbelata rosea. Purple candytuft. One foot. Octo- 
ber till April. 

LiiiiusM g-randilloriiiii riibrum. Scarlet Flax. A very pretty 
plant for masses or borders, with bright scarlet flowers, dark in the 
centre. One foot. January till April. 



Heliotropium. 




Lobelia erimis. 




Mathiola annua. 



Lobelia eriiius. Lobelia. A very graceful j^lant, with white 
and blue flowers, well adapted for hanging baskets or border. Half 
foot. October till March. 



104 



Richard Frotaclier's Almanac and Garden Manual 



r.yclaiiis clialeedonica. Lychnis. 
Nice ])lants with scarlet, wliite and rose 
flowers. Two feet. December till April. 

Lupinus. Lupiuus. Plants with 
spikes of flowers of various colors. Should 
be sown soon. Does not transplant well. 
Two feet. December till March. 

Matliiola aunna. Ten Weeks Stocks. 
This is one of the finest annuals in cultiva- 
tion. Large flowers of all colors, from white 
to dark blue or crimson. Should be sown in 
pots or i)ans, and when large enough trans- 
planted into rich soil. One and a qua,rter 
feet. October till March. 

Mesemforyaiatlienniiii crystalli- 
Lvebnis clialeedonica. 11 11 111. Ice plant. Neat plant with icy 
looking foliage. It is of spreading habit. Good for baskets or beds. 
One foot. February till April. 

Mimulus tig-rill lis. Monkey flower. Showy flowers of yellow 
and brown. Should be sown in a shady place. Does not transplant 
well. Hiilf foot. December till March. 









^S5fe^ 







Ice Plant. 
Matricaria capeusis. 



Double Matricaria. 
Double Matricaria. White double 
flowers, resembling the Daisy, but smaller ; are fine for bouquets ; 
blooms very nearly the vrhole summer. Two feet. December till 
March. 

Mimosa pudica, Sensitive Plant, A curious and interesting 
plant which folds up its leaves when touched. One foot. February 
till June. 

MirabiSis Jalapa. Mar\'el of Peru. A well known plant of 
easy culture ; producmg flowers of various colors. It forms a root 
which can be preserved from one year to another, Februa?i'y till June. 
Three feet. 

Myosotis paliistris. Forget-me-not. A fine little plant with 
small, blue, starlike flowers. Should have a moist, shady situation. 
Does not succeed so well here as in Euroiie, of which it is a native. 
Half foot high. December till March. 



For the SouUiern States. 



105 





Blue Grove Love. Petunia hybrida. 

NeanopSiila Insig-ifiis. Blue Grove Love. Plants of easy culture, 
very pretty and profuse bloomers. Bright blue with white centre. 
One foot hieh. 




^^' 




Niorella damascena. 



CEnothera Lamarckiaua. 



IVemopliila maculata. 

Large white flowers spotted with 
violet. One foot high. December 
till April. 

TV i ^ e I B a damascena. 
Love in a Mist. Plants of easy 
culture, with light blue flowers. 
Does not transplant well. On^^ 
foot high. December till April. 

Wiereaitocrgia g^raeilis. 
Nierembergia. Nice plants with 
delicate foliage, and white flow- 
ers tinted with lilac. One foot 
high. November till April. 

CEnotliera Laniarckia- 
ua. Evening Primrose ; showy, 
large yellow flowers. Decem- 
ber till April. Two feet high. 




Papaver ranunculus flowered. 



106 



Bicharcl Frotscliey^'s Almanac and Garden Manual 



Papaver Soniiiiferuin. Double flowering Poppy. Of different 
colors ; very showy. 

Papaver raiiamculus fl©'%vere«l. Doable fringed flowers, 
very show^y. Cannot be transplanted. Two feet high. October till 
March. 

Petiiaiia tiytorida. Petunia. Splendid mixed hybrid varieties. 
A very decorative plant of various colors, well known to almost every 
lover of flowers. Plants are of spreading habit, about one foot higli. 
January till May. 



Portulaca. 




Phlox Driimmondii grancliflora. 



For the Southern States. 



107 



Petunia flora pleiio. Lar^-e double floworin^^ varieties. They 
are hybridized with the finest strains, and will give from 20 to 25 per 
cent, of double flowers. Very handsome ; 25 cents per package. Janu- 
ary till March. 

Phlox Driiininondli. 
Drummond's Phlox. One of 
the best and most popular 
annuals in cultivation. Their 
various colors and length of 
flowering, with easy culture, 
make them favorites with 
every one. All fine colors 
mixed. One foot high. 
December till April. 

Pfiilox l>r8iiiiiiiioi2dii 
g-randiflora. This is an 
improvement on the above : 
flowers are larger v>^ith white 
centre, different colors. 
Very beautiful. One foot^ 
high. December till Ajiril. 5 

PortiBlaea. A small 
plant of great beauty, and 
ofthe easiest culture. Does 
best in a well exposed situa- 
tion, where it has plenty of 
sun. The flowers are of various colors, from white to bright scarlet 
and crimson. The plant is good for edging vases or pots ; or where 
large plants are kept in tubs, the surface can be filled with this neat 
little genius of plants. Half foot high, February till August. 

Portulaca grandillora fl. pi. Double Portulaca. The same 
variety of colors with semi-double and double flowers. Half foot high. 
February till August. 




Double Portulaca. 








Primula veris. 



Scabiosa nana. 

Primula veris. Polyanthus. An herbaceous plant of various 
colors, highly esteemed in Europe. Half foot higli. December till 
April. 



Primula chineiisis. Chinese Prim- 
rose. A green-house plant, wliich flowers 
profusely and continues to bloom for a 
long time ; should be sown early to insure 
the plant flowering well. Different co- 
lors ; mixed i)er package 25 cents. One 
and a half feet high. October till Febru- 
ary. 

Reseda odos^ata. Sweet Migno- 
nette. A fragrant plant and a favorite 
with everybody. One foot high. 

Keseda g^randiHora. Similar to 
the above plant and flower, spikes lar- 
ger. Fifteen inches. December till 
Reseda odorata. April. 

8cat>iosa nasia. Dwarf Mourning Bride. Plants of double 
flowers of various colors. One foot high. December till April. 

Saponaria calabrlea. Soapwort. A very free flowering an- 
nual, of easy culture, resembling somewhat in leaves the Sweet William. 
One and a half feet high. December till April. 

Salvia coccitiea spSendeas. Scarlet Salvia or Red Flowering- 
Sage. A pot or green-house plant, but which can be grown as an an- 
nual, as it flowers freely from seed the first year. Two to three feet 
high. February till April. 

Sileiie Ariueria. Lobel's Catchfly. A free blooming plant of 
easy culture ; flowers almost anywhere. Red and white. One and a 
half feet high. 






Tagetes Erecta. 



Tagetes Patiila. 



Tagetes erecta. African or Tall-growing Marigold. Very 
showy annuals for borders, with bright yellow flowers growing upright. 
One and a half feet high. 

Tag-etespaiuSa. French or Dwarf Marigold. A very compact 
dwarf growing variety, covered with yellow and brown flowers. One 
and a half feet high. ' January till April. 

Torenia Foiiriiieri. A plant from Mexico of recent introduc- 
tion, but which has become very ])opular in a short time. It stands 
the heat well, is well adapted to pot culture, and makes one of the 
most valuable bedding plants we have. The flowers are of a sky blue 
color, with three spots of dark blue. The seeds are very fine and take 
a good while to germinate. It transplants very easily. " 



For the. Soathem State 



m.) 



Verbena hybrid a. 

Hybridized Verboua. A 
well known and favorite 
flower for borders. Their 
long flowering and great 
diversity of color make 
them valuable for every 
garden, however small. 
All colors mixed. One 
and a half feet high. 
January till April. 

Verbeaaa Striped 
Italian. These are beau- 
tiful striped kinds of all 
colors with large eyes. 

Verbeoia Niveaii. 
White Verbena. Pure 
white Verbena of more 
or less fragrance. One 
and a half feet high. 
January till April. 

Tinea rosea and 
alba. Red and White 
Periwinkle. Plants of 
shining foliage, with 
white and dark rose col- 
ored flowers, which are 
Ijroduced the whole sum- 
mer and autumn. Two 
feet high. February till 
April. 

Viola odorata. 
Sweet Violet. Weil known 
edging plant, which 
generally is propagated 
by dividing the plants ; 
but can also be raised 
from seed. Half foot 
high. Sow from January 
till March. 




Choicest Large English Pansy. 




Hybridized Verbena. 



Striped Italian Verbena. 



110 



Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



Viola tricolor siaaxima. Large flowering choicest Pansy. 
Tliis is one of the finest little plants in cultivation, for pots or the 
open ground. Tliey are of endless colors and markings. Wlien 
planted in the garden, they mil show better if planted in masses, and 
a little elevated above the level of the garden. Half foot high. October 
till March. 




o,NO&'.R.eyi0 



Double Zinnia. 
Ziiaiaia elegans &, i>i. Double Zinnia. Plants of very easy 
culture, flowering very profusely through the w^hole summer and 
fall ; producing double flowers of all colors, almost as large as the 
flower of a Dahlia. Three feet high, February till August. 



For the Southern States. 



Ill 



CLIMBING PLANTS. 



BeBiiKica.i§si cerifera. Wax Gourd. A strong p:rowing vine 
with long- shaped dark crimson fruit, which looks very ornamental. 
It is used for i»reserves. 



® ,_'"'^: 





Balloon Vine 



Climbin.o- Cobaja. 



CardiospemaHMi. Balloon Vine. A quick-growing climber, 
the seeds of which are in a pod shaped like a miniature balloon, there- 
fore the name, 

Cotosea ScaBidews. Climbing Cobsea. Large purple bell shaped 
flowers. Should be sown in a hot-bed, and not kept too moist. Place 
the seed edgewise in the ground. Twenty feet high. January till 
April. 










;WHf^w.^ 



m' 



Mixed Thunberi:ia. 



Morning Glory. 

Coiii^oiviiliis major. Morning Glory. Well known vine with 
various handsomely colored flowers of easy culture. Grow almost 
anywhere. Ten feet high. February till July. 



112 



RlcliorO. Froi.iCfier's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Hvacinth Bean. 



CftiJ'ciirbita. Ornainental Gonrd. Mixed varieties or Ornamen- 
tal Gourds of different sliaj)es and sizes. February' till May. 

Cair€iirbitalag"e5iai'ia dtalcis. Sweet Gourd. A strong grow- 
ing vine of which the young fruits are used like Squash. February 
till April. 

l>oSiclao$ I.al>Iat>. Hyacinth 
Beau. Free growing plant, with pur- 
ple and white flowers. March til! 
April. 

£poiii££a Q&iauioeBig rosea. 
Bed Cypress Yine. Very beautiful, 
delicate foliage, of rapid growth, with 
scarlet flowers. 

Ipoiiiaea Qiiaitioelit alba. 
Yv'hite Cypress Yine. The same as the 
foregoing kind, except white flowers. 
February till August. 

IpoBiieea BoaiaZVox. Laj-ge Flow- 
ering Evening Glory. A vine of rapid 
growth, with beautiful blue and white 
flowers whi<-h open in the evening. 
Twenty feet high. February tillJune. 
I^atlftyreis odoratu<§. Sweet Peas. Beautiful flowers of all 
colors, very showy. Good for cut flowers. Six feet high. December 
till April. ' 

Maui'andia BarcBayasia. Mixed Maurandia. A slender 
growing vine of rapid growth. Eose, ])urple and white colors mixed. 
Ten feet high. Fei^ruary till April. 

Mansordica BaBsaBBiiiia. Balsam Apple. A climbing plant 
of very rapid growth, producing Cucumber-like fruits, with warts ou 
them. They are believed to contain some medicinal virtues. They 
are put in jars with alcohol, and are used as a dressing for cuts, 
bruises, etc. 

IvMSfa aeutaa^iila. Dish Eag Yine. A very rapid gi^owing 
vine of the Gourd family. ^Yhen the fruit is dry, the fibrous sub- 
stance, which covers the seeds, can be used as a rag. February till 
April. 

SeeiiiiiiiK edule. Yegetable Pear or Mirliton. A rapid growing 
vine with grape-like leaves, of which the fruit is eaten ; there are two 
varieties, white and green. It has only one seed, and the whole fruit 
has to be planted. 

TB'op^olisiii uiajus. Nasturtium. Trailing plants with ele- 
gant flow^ers of different shades, mostly yellow and crimson, which are 
produced in great abundance. Four feet high. February till April. 
Thuiiber||[ia. Mixed Thunbergia. Yery ornamental vines, 
with yellow bell shapeil flowers, with dark eye. Six feet high. Feb- 
ruarv till Ma v. 



For the Southern States. 



113 



BULBOUS ROOTS, 



ABieuisones. Double flower- 
ing. Planted and treated the same 
as the Eaniinculiis. They are of 
great varieties in color. 

Double Dutch ^•:0.50 per dozen. 
French 1.00 
S>ji5aaaas. Fine double named 
varieties. Plants so well known 
tor their brilliancy, diversity of 
colors and profuse flowering quali- 
ties, that they require no recom- 
mendation. They can be planted 
from February till May; they 
thrive best in rich loamy soil. They 
should be tied up to stakes, which 
ought to be driven into the ground 
before or when planting them. To 
have them flower late in the season 
they should be planted late in the 
spring, and the flower buds nipped 
off when they appear; treated in 
this way, they will produce ]>erfect 
flowers during fall. Undivided 
roots $4.00 per dozen. 




Anemones. 







15 



Dahliatt. 



lU 



Bichard Frotficher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



j 



^^^'^ 



"4^ 












1^' .4l 






•^ # 







->^ 







first 
per 



G-3adioliis. Hybrid 
Gladiolus. One of the best 
summer flowering bulbs : 
they have been greatly im- 
proved of late years, and 
almost every color has been 
produced ; is tinged and 
blotched in all shades from 
delicate rose to dark Ver- 
million. When planted at 
intervals during spring, 
they will flower at different 
times, but those that are 
planted earliest produce the 
finest flowers. The roots 
should be taken up in the 
fall. 

Hybrids mixed, 
choice, 10c. each ; 75c 
dozen. 

Hybrids, vrhite ground. 
1st choice, 10c. each, 81.00 
per dozen. 

Yery fine named varie- 
ties, 25e. each. 

OioxJ2iia§. These art- 
really bulbous green-house 
plants, but they can be cul- 
tivated in pots and kept in 
a shady place in the garden, 
or window. They are very 
beautiful, color from white 
to dark violet and crimson. 
The leaves are velvety, and 
on some varieties very large. 
They should be planted 
early in spring ; require 
sandy ground and a good 
deal of moisture during 
flowering time. French 
Hybrids strong bulbs, S3.0«:> 
per dozen. 

HyaciaitSis. iDriCH.i 
Double and single. The 
Hyacinth is a beautiful 
flowering bulb, well suited 
for open ground or pot culture. They should be planted from Octo- 
ber till February. If planted in pots it is well to keep in a cool, rather 
dark place, till they are well started, when the^' can be placed in the 
full light and sun. Double and single, 15 cents each ; $1. 50 per dozen. 
L.iliuiii tag:riRnii]. Tiger Lily. A well known variety, very 
showv and of easv culture : 10 cents each. 




Hvbrid Gladiolus. 




^s- 



t 



~:P 



y- 



Gloxinias. 



For the Southern States. 



115 



L.IBiBi]ti!i tg;i^i'isiiieQii d. I»l. This is ti new variety ; it is i)erfe(illy 
double, ai)(l tiie i)etals are imbricated almost as rei;iilarly as a eame- 
lia flower. Novel and line, lo cents each. 





Liliuni Tigrinum fl. pi 

.■rl7 

JAPAN LILIES. 

I^iliisiis attBratusiii. Golden 
Band Lily. This is a very hand- 
some lily ; the flowers are large 
and white, each petal having a 
yellow stripe. It is of easy cul- 
ture. A loamy, dry soil suits it 
best, and planted one inch deep. 

The past season I had occa- 
sion to see several of this noble 
lily in bloom, and it is reaily 
fine ; half a dozen flowers open- 
ing at the same time, and they 
measure from six to nine inches 
across ; it is very fragrant. I ex- 
l>ect some fine bulbs, same as I 
had last year, imported direct 
from their native country. 

Flowering bulbs, 50c. each. 

JLiliuiBi loneifolEunii ^^l- 
bum. Pure white Jar^an Lily, 
■10 cents each. 

L.iliuiii I!»,iicifolius]i ru^ruBei. 
cents each, 

^l\\\\\i\ laEicifoliwBBi I'oseiiin. Rose spotted, 15c. each. 

These Japan Lilies are very beautiful and fragrant. Should Ije 
planted from Octol^er till Ja.nu.iry. Perfectly suited to this climate. 







Lilium auratum. 
White and red si)otted, 



116 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 








Lilium laaciioiiuin rubrum 



Tuberost^. 



F^oiila sisiensis, Chinese or herbaceous Peeonia. Herba- 
ceous plants of different colors a^nd great beauty: they should be 
planted during fall in a shady situation, as it flowers early in spring. 
If planted too late it will not flower perfectly ; iOc. each. 












lianuncuiuo. 



Seiila peruviana. 

Mao line tii US. Double Flowering. The roots can be plantetl 
during fall and winter, either in the open ground or in pots. The 
French varieties are more robust than the Persian, and the flowers 
are larger. The ground should be rather dry, and if planted in the 
open ground, it will be well to have the spot a little higher than the 
bed or border. 

Persian Eanunculus 25 cents per dozen. 

French '' 40 " 

Scslla peruviana. These are green-house bulbs at the Xorth^, 
but here they are hardy, and do well in the oi^en ground. There are 
two varieties— the blue and the white. They throw up a shoot, on the 
end of which the flowers appear, forming a truss. Plant from Octo- 
ber till January. 30 cents each. 

Twlips. Double and single Tulips thrive better in a more Xorth- 
ern latitude than this, but some vears thev flower well here, and as 







Fo7^ the SouUiern State,^. 




117 


they 


are cheap* a few flowering bulbs will ])av the sin 


ill amount they 


cost. 


They 


should not be planted 


later tl 


lan December and placed 


very 


shallow 


in the ground ; not more than one-third of the bulb should || 


h'd covered. 


When near flowering 


they re 


quire a good deal of moist- |] 


lire. 


Single 


and double, 50 cents per dozen 






1 


Tanberoscs, Double Flowering. They are orn 


amental 


for the 


garden, and 


very valuable for making bouquets, on i 


iccount 


of their 


pure 


white color and great fragrance 


. Plant during the spring 


months. 


Strong bulbs 10 cents each, 75 cents 


, per dozen. 










BOUQUET PAPERS. 






I keep a 


large and varied stocl 


c of bouquet papers, besides the | 


different kinds enumerated below. 


I also have finer 


qualities, satin. 


velvc 


t and tarleton, ranging from $1.50 to $4.50 each ; 


also, some new 


style 


s called 


Parisian, finished in 


the same excpiisit 


e style 


as those 


abov 


e. The3 


' are very appropriate for bridal bouquets. 








PASTED CARTOMS. 






• 




^^4 


'=^^^^^-1 






^%S 


















Measure includes the Lfice. 








luclies in 






iDclies ill 






No. 


diameter 


per do z. per gross. 


No. 


diameter. 


per doz. 


])er .qross . 


4 


4i 


$0 15 $1 50 


1622 


in 


1^0 60 


$6 75 


523 


41 


15 1 75 


1671 


m 


60 


6 75 


1716 


5 


20 2 00 


1919 


12 


60 


6 75 


531 


5h 


15 1 75 


533 


12 


60 


7 00 


1823 


5h 


15 1 75 


12 


12 


i) 60 


7 00 


1G88 


7 


25 2 75 


1789 


12^ 


60 


7 00 


1606 


n 


30 3 00 


1604 


13 


50 


6 00 


1848 


n 


30 3 25 


1760 


13 


60 


7 00 


16G2 


8 


35 3 50 


1712 


131 


70 


7 75 


518 


8 


35 3 50 


1920 


13i 


99 


10 00 


1610 


8 


35 3 50 


501 


14 


70 


7 50 


1682 


9 


40 4 00 


1693 


15 


90 


10 00 


1685 


9 


40 4 00 


1922 


15 


1 20 


13 50 


10, 


9i 


40 4 25 


176 


15 


1 00 


11 00 • 


1609 


10 


50 5 00 


549 


10 


80 


9 00 


^ 1690 


10 


50 4 75 


1923 


16 


1 50 


15 00 


1918 


10^ 


50 5 00 


525 


18 


1 40 


12 00 


552 


lOi 


60 5 00 


18 


18 


1 50 


15 00 


1677 


11 


60 6 25 


507 


20 


1 50 


17 00 



118 



Pdchard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



ITALIANS, with S2 Scallops, 

Measure exclusive of Lace. 




per doz. 
$0 75 

90 

1 25 
1 00 



Inches in 

No. diaaieter. each 

31 7i $0 15 

83 7g 20 

99 8i 20 




!TAL5ANS, with 24 Scallops. 

Measure exchisive of Lace. 






luches in 








Inches in 






No. 


diameter. 


each 


per doz. 


No. 


diameter 


each. 


per doz. ; 


53 


t) 


SO 10 


SI 00 


73 


9 


m 25 


^■^2 25 


54 

76 


71 

8j 


15 

20 


1 40 
1 80 


15 


12 


25 


. 2 50 



STALIAMS. with Gilt or Silver Lace, 12 Scallops. 

Measure exclusive of Lace. 

Inches in I luches in 

No. diameter each j No. diameter. each. 

33 6 j>11t, 25 cts. 33 8 .triit, 50 cts. 

44 6| o^iit and silver,.. 25 Cts. 13 9 gilt, 50 cts. 

39 7 gilt, 30 cts. I 15 9 silver, 50 cts. 



For the Southern States. 



119 



THE NEW YORK SEED DRILL. 
MATTHEWS PATENT. 




I take pleasure in calling your attention to a perfect Seed Drill. 
Tiiis Drill was invented and i>erfected by the father of the seed-drill 
business— Mr. E. G. Matthews, It has been his aim for years to make 
a perfect drill and do awaij with the objections found in all others, and 
in the New York he has accomplished it. Its advantages over other 
drills are as follov/s ; 

1. Marker-bar under the frame, held by clamps, easy to adjust 
to any width by simply loosening thumb nuts, 

2. Adjustable plow, which opens a wide furrow, and can be set to 
sow at any depth. 

3. Open seed conductor to show seed dropping. 

4. Bars in seed conductor, for scattering seed in wide furrow, 
prevent disturbing strong plants when thinning out— an important 
feature. 

5. Eidged roller, 

6. Dial plate in full sight of operator, and made of patent com- 
bination white metal, which prevents rust, 

7. Dial plate set on fulcrum, and hence holds close up, preventing 
seed from spilling. 

8. It has a large seed-box v*'ith hinged cover. 

9. Machine will stand up alone when not in use, )\ot liable to tip 
over. 

It is the SIMPLEST, MOST COMPACT and EASIEST DEILL TO 
HANDLE, being only 32 inches long. 
It covers the seed better and runs very easy. 

Packed in crates for shipping. Weight about 45 pounds. Price 
$12 00. . 



120 



Blchard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



MATTHEWS' HAND CULTIVATOR. 



The jIatthews Kaxd Ctlti- 
VATOS is one of the best imple- 
ments in use for weeding be- 
tween row crops, and for fiat 
cultiration generally, and is an 
indisviensable companion to the 
.seed drill. 

It is thoroiighiv constructed 
throughout, rery durable; easy 
to operate. A hoy can do ccs much 
icith it, as sir men with hoes. It 
spreads from 6 to 11 inches, and will cut all the ground covered, even 
when spread to its greatest extent. Its teeth axe of a new and im- 
proved pattern, and thoroughly pulverize and mellow the soil. The 
depth of cultivating may be accurately gauged by raising or lowering 
the wheels, vrhich is quickly done by the use.of a thumb screw. 




Price So 50 Boxed. 



GARDEN IMPLEMENTS. 




Loop Fastener, swing socket Scvthe Snath, 




Ladies' Set, Floral Tools. Xo. 5. 



For the Soutliern States. 



121 




Boys' Favorite Set. 




Weediufi: Hoe and Rake Combined. 



Cast Steel Garden Trowel. 




Strawberry or Traasplaating Fork. 




Spading Fork, D Handle. 
16 



Excelsior Weeding Hook. 



122 Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 





Slide Pruning Shear. 



Hedge Shear. 




Saynor's Pruning Knife, No. 19i. 




Saynor's Pruning Knife, No, 192. 



^Yeiss' Hand Pruning Shear. 



0. G-. Hand Pruning Shear. 



Dutch, or Scuffle Hoe. 



For the Southern States. 



123 



PRICE LIST OF GARDEN IMPLEMENTS. 



Improved American Garden Syringes. 

No. A (Small) $3 50 

No. 2 — Conservatory, with two extra roses 5 00 

No. 3— Green House, " " " 6 00 

No. 5- " " " " 7 50 

ISO. 8— " " " " 9 00 

HOES. 

W. A. Lj'ndou's Louisiana, No. 1 1 15 

No. 2 1 20 

No. 3 1 25 

C. A. Mayuard's No. 45 

No. 2 55 

No. 4 65 

King, Briggs & Co.'s Scovill's Pattern No. 3 65 

No. 2 55 

D. & H. Scovill's Imp. Planters', 8 inches 75 

Lane's Crescent, No. 1 65 

No. 2 60 

Champion, with handle 75 

Socket, with handle 60 

Two Pronged Weeding, with handle 50 and 60 

Magic Hoe 75 

Hexamer Prong Hoe 1 50 

RAKES. 

Malleable Iron, 9 teeth, (Ladies') 50 

Steel. " 10 " 65 

"12 " 80 

"14 " 90 

"16 " 1 00 

Wooden Hay Rakes 25 

Head (Malleable Iron teeth,) 50 

SPADES. 

Ames' Long Handled 1 25 

Ames' Bright 1 00 

Rowlands' Long Handled 60 and 75 

.Ames' Short Handled 1 00 

Rowland's " 1 00 

SHOVELS. 

Rowland's Short Handled (square) 75 

Ames' " • 140 

Hubbard & Oliver's Long Handled, (rour.d point) 90 

Rowland's Long Handled, (round point) 75 



124 Bichard Frotschei^'s Almanac and Garden 2Ianual 

SCYTHE SNATHS. 

Handles for French Scythe Blades 1 00 

No. 1, Round Socket slip ring . 75 

Xo. 0, Plate Heel, slip ring 80 

No. 00, Loop Fastener 90 

SICKLES. 

English (welded), No. 2 40 

No. 3 : 45 

" (riveted back), No. 1 75 

No. 2 60 

No. 3 85 

French 40c and 45 

SHEARS. 

Hedge Shears, 10 inches 2 50 

8 " 2 25 

7 " .... 2 00 

Pruning " No. 1, (Weiss) 2 00 

No. 2, - 1 75 

No. 3, " 150 

" O. G 150 

" • ' (common) 75 

Slide Pruning Shear, large, 4 00 

small 3 00 

KNIVES. 

Union Knife Co. 's Budding, (wooden handle) 75 

Geo. "SVosteuholmes '• (^ white bone handle) No. 1, Si 00; No. 2, 1 25 

H. & J. W. King's Pruning from 60c to 1 25 

Saynor & Cook's ' ' from 75c to 1 60 

Saynor & Cook's Budding Si 00 and 1 25 

Aaron Burkinshaw's Pruning and Budding . . from 40c to 80 

FORKS. 

spading. Long Handled . 1 25 

' ' D Handle (strapped) '. 1 25 

Manure, Long Handled, 4 tine 75 

Short " 4'- 50 

POTATO HOOKS. 

Long Handled, 6 tine 75 

4" 65 

SCYTHES. 

French, First Quality (polished), 22 inches 90 

24 " 1 00 

26 " 1 15 

28 " ;: 1 2e 

Second Quality, (blue) 22 ^' 80 

24 " 90 

26 *' 1 00 

28 " 1 10 

"Auburn'" Bramble 1 00 

American Grass 1 00 

Blood's Bramble 90 



For the Southern States. 



125 



FLORAL TOOLS. 

The Bo3''s Favorite— Ho6\ Spade and Rake 



2 50 



LADIES' SETS. 



No. 5—4 pieces, Hoe, Rake, Spade and Fork 1 25 

Hoe and Rake combined, Fork and Spade . . 1 75 

1 50 

'Best English, extra finish . 3 00 

4 00 



No. 68—3 
No. 67—3 
No. 3-4 

No. 4—4 



TREE PRUNERS. 



Length of Pole 8 feet, weight 3| pounds 2 50 

"10 " " U " .' 2 50 

Extra Knives each 30 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Pruning Saws 50c and 1 00 

Excelsior Weeding Hooks 25 

Transpkinting Shovels , 25c and 35 

" Trowels, (American) 6 inch, 15c; 7 inch, 20 

(English) 50c and 75 

Forks. No. 1, 20c; No. 2, 25 

Scotch Whetstones 25 

Common " 20 

French " 10c and 15 

Lathing Hatchets 70c and 75 

Nottingham Bill Hooks 1 50 

Hoe Handles 25 

Philadelphia Broadcast Seed Sowers 6 00 

WATERING POTS. 

6 Quarts, Japanned 50 

8 " " 65 

10 " " 75 

12 " " 1 00 

16 " " 1 40 

Extra Heavy, (hand made) $1 25, 1 50, 1 75 and 2 00 



126 Blcliard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



DHOURO, OR EGYPTIAN CORN. 

(Sorghum Vulgar e.) 
By E. M. Hudson. 

This cereal is ordinarily sui)posed. to be a native of Asia, but it is 
cultivated largely as well in Africa, some portions of the West Indies 
and South America. In the United States it was formerly i^lanted 
quite extensively in the Southern States ; but at present, many more 
times as much of it is grown in Kansas as in all the rest of this country. 
Its name varies almost with the locality in which it is raised ; and the 
varieties — the results of sports or crossings — cire almost as numerous 
as its designations. In Kansas, which must be regarded as the leading 
locality of its present production in this country, two varieties mainly 
are cultivated, the Bed and the WJiite. Both of these are good, equally 
so, perhaps, unless as to productiveness, for it is generally believed 
that the Bed i3roduces much more grain than the White. Also it is 
said that the Bed will ripen seed farther North than the White ; but in 
the Southern States this is of no consideration, in as much as both, in 
one season, have produced seed from which a second seed-bearing 
crop has been produced without difficulty. Nor does it appear, as far 
as actual experiment has gone, that the Bed. is much, if any, more 
productive than the JJl cite in the Southern belt, at least near the Gulf 
coast. 

In nutrition the grain is but little behind wheat ; while its yield 
per acre is greater than any cereal in the known world. From 100 to 
150 bushels of grain on rich lands is but an ordinary yield ; and it is 
claimed that in Kansas this year near 200 bushels per acre have been 
produced. This is quite possible of belief to those who saw the mag- 
nificent panicles on exhibition at Atlanta, at the International Cotton 
Exi3osition this autumn. In certain portions of Kansas, where pro- 
longed droughts are usual, its cultivation has recently been success- 
fully introduced as a substitute for wheat ; for drought seems to have 
but little influence to retard its growth. Indeed, when planted side 
by side with Indian Corn, the latter from drought has been curled and 
twisted almost beyond hope, the former exhibited no external effects 
of the dry season. 

Of course the yield varies with the soil on which it grows, the 
richer the soil the greater the yield ; but it will grow well on soil how- 
ever poor ; in this respect taking precedence even of the cow pea. It 
grows from six to twelve feet high, and may be repeatedly cut for 
green soiling. For, not only as a cereal, making a meal far better 
than that of Indian Corn, but also as a forage plant the Dhonro is in- 
valuable. Not only does it spring up from the stubble, when cut at 
from 3 to 5 feet high, but also after maturing the seed-heads it send§ 
forth shoots or suckers from lower joints, which in turn produce 
smaller heads. It is rich in saccharine matter and affords a good, 
though rough hay or fodder when cured. Cut when very young and 
succulent it is not easy to cure unless the weather be fine ; but, as it 
continues to grow till frost, making new suckers from the joints all 
the time, it may be allowed to mature seed, be cut and then easily 



For the Southern States. 



127 



cured, formin<2;- a fair fodder with rich grain combined. Cut in this 
way the stalks not only cure more easily, but keep far better than any 
other of the family of pithy grasses. It will not become sour like In- 
dian Corn. The most economical and practical way of curing it, is, as 
it will thus appear, to cut and house stalks and seed all together when 
the larger quantity of seeds has ripened. All kinds of stock are fond 
of both the fodder and grain, and cattle especially eat it with great 
avidity. 

It is cultivated either by sowing broad-cast for hay or to be cut for 
green soiling, or in drills about three feet apart. If sown broad-cast, 
one bushel of seed to the acre, harrowed in, is sufficient. The yield 
of green stuff and cured hay is simply enormous ; its growth is rapid 
and continuous till frost ; so that there is no fear of losing it from be- 
coming over-ripe. If sowed in drills one peck of seed per acre is am- 
ple. Of course, except on very rich land, the seed-heads will be lar- 
ger and finer if not sown too thickly. For grain the stalks should not 
be nearer than 12 inches in the drill, but if to be cut repeatedly till frost 
for green soiling, it is better to sow quite thickly in the drills. An 
inch or an inch and a-half is the proper depth for covering the seed. 
Of course the ground should be well ploughed and harrowed before 
sowing. When the plants are well up they should be thinned to the 
proper distance in the drills by chopping across the rows. One or two 
good ploughings is all the cultivation needed. Once well started no 
fear need be entertained that weeds or grass can make headway — 
they will be speedily choked out by the dense growth of foliage. So 
rapid is its growth that the seed crop can soon be harvested and, as 
before stated, a new crop from the seed be grown the same year. It 
can be sown at any time in the far South from March to August ; it is 
not injured by a slight frost when young. The leaves, if stripped 
from the stalks, make as good fodder as those of Indian Corn, al- 
though they are not so large. If both fodder and grain are gathered, 
and stock turned in to feed on the stalks, and the remnants then 
ploughed in, it will be found that the lands will lose very little by the 
operation. It is astonishing how quickly cattle will grow fat on. these 
bare, succulent stalks. 

The green fodder, by actual analysis, as compared with Bed Clo- 
ver in blossom, is shown to be richer both in heating properties and 
fat forming principles than the clover, but not so rich in flesh produ- 
cers. The following table will show their comparative values : — 





1 


^9 

2 ^ 


> 




Carbo- 
Hydrates 


■ P- 

■ CD 


t 




* 


. o 




: P 


; f^ 




Dhouro 


77.3 


21.4 


1.1 


2.9 


11.9 


6.7 


1.4 


Eed Clover in blossom 


78.0 


20.3 


1.7 


3.7 


8.6 


8.0 


0.8 



As Dhouro will yield more grain, fodder and stalks on a greater 
variety of lands, with less labor, in one season, and will leave more 
rough litter to be turned into the soil than any other cereal, besides 



128 Bicharcl Frotsclier's Almanac and Garden Manual 



being excellent food for both man and beast, it certainly deserves to 
be considered one of the most valuable cereals, and is worthy of the 
attention of every farmer in the South. Even as feed for chickens 
nothing is its equal. 

During the last two or three years a variety, which experience 
shovv^s to be radically different from those above described, has been 
sent out by the enterprising proprietors of the Enral New Yorker. 
The seed heads of this variety, popularly known as the "Eural Branch- 
ing Sorghum'," are borne upright, in a vertical position, while the heads 
of the others are mainly drooping, bending downwards in a graceful 
curve. Also, the seeds of the Branching variety are somewhat smaller 
and more spherical than in the other kinds. In addition the seed ma- 
ture much more slowly, but in ample time to be harvested in the lower 
Gulf States before frost. The stalk growth of the "Eural Branching" 
variety is far larger than that of the others, being in fact as large as 
that of large Southern Corn ; while it obtains a height of from 15 to 16 
feet on very ordinary piney-woods lands. The leaf also is fully as 
large as that of Indian Corn, thus producing more fodder by at leSst 
one-fourth than Indian Corn on the same land. This variety, more- 
over, tillers or suckers at the ground enormously, each seed produ- 
cing from three to a dozen stalks, and sometimes more. When once 
well under way, it can be cut for green soiling oftener and will yield 
at each cutting far more fodder than the other varieties. It suckers 
and tillers more and more the oftener it is cut ; and, so far, it exceeds 
greatly in yield of green fodder and hay any of the familiar fodder 
plants, not excepting perhaps even the Fearl Millet. The "Eural 
Branching" variety is, therefore, more valuable as a forage plant to 
be cut for green soiling, or for curing as hay. This variety should be 
planted exclusively in drills four feet apart, and not nearer than 18 to 
20 inches in the drill, on account of its mammoth growth. All these 
varieties are annuals. 



THE JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. 

(Helianthus Tuberosus.) 
By E. M. Hudson. 

Used as a vegetable, the Jerusalem Artichoke makes a delicious 
pickle ; and when cooked, as hereafter directed, it is esteemed by con- 
noisseurs as a luxury. 

Wash and scrape or pare them ; boil in milk and water till they are 
soft, which will be from fifteen to thirty minutes. Take them out-an^ 
stew them for a few minutes in a sauce made by rolling a bit of butter 
of the size of a walnut in flour, mixed with half a pint of cream or 
milk, and seasoned with pepper, salt, or grated nutmeg. 

It is as a forage or root crop, however, that the Artichoke possesses 
unusual merits for the farmer. Its habit may be styled self-propa- 
gating, for when once established it is almost perpetual ; and this 
gives it a peculiar value. It will grow on exceedingly poor land and 



For the Southern States. 



129 



l^rodiice well, while on rich land the yield is enormous. Three bush- 
els of tubers are amply sufficient to plant an acre, the large ones be- 
ing cut into pieces with two or three eyes like potatoes. The land 
should be thoroughly ploughed, and from January to April they 
should be i^lanted in farrows about three to four feet apart, dropping 
the tubers about eighteen inches apart, and covering with a plough. 

When they are well up, plough them as you would corn ; and when 
about a foot high, plough them again, throwing a furrow to each side, 
and you are done cultivating them forever. The first year they will 
yield a good crop (from five to eight hundred bushels), and will im- 
prove for two or three years, if the soil is good, till they double the 
product of the first year. On piney-woods land seven hundred bush- 
els to the acre is only a fair yield. On very rich land 1500 to 2000 bush- 
els, it is said, have^^een produced. In August the tops may be cut 
and cured for hay, which is quite equal to corn fodder, or may be fed 
green, soiled. The yield is large, and the tops are eagerly eaten by 
cattle, horsed and mules. The tops, if cut, should be taken off about a 
foot from the ground. One cutting does not at all affect the yield of 
the tubers. In November the hogs should be turned in to harvest the 
tubers for themselves, and may remain on them till March. In car- 
bonaceous matter— starch or its equivalent— they are but a trifle infe- 
rior to potatoes, as will be seen from the following table : 

In 1000 parts — Flesh Formers. Fat Formers. 

Potatoes 14 189 

Carrots 6 66 

Parsnips 12 70 

Mangolds 2 102 

Sugar Beets 3 136 

White Turnips 1 40 

Artichokes 10 188 

Thus it will be seen that in 1000 parts potatoes contain 200 parts of 
nutriment, and artichokes 198 parts, while turnips contain only 41 
parts. Yet the turnip, above all roots, has made English agriculture 
progressive, because they may be fed on land without gathering. The 
artichoke is unaffected in the ground by any amount of cold, and, in- 
deed, should always remain there until gathered for use or planting. 

The enormous yield, the small amount of labor in cultivation, and 
the nutritious character of the tubers, make them the most economi- 
cal food for hogs that can possibly be grown. And the hogs, if suf- 
fered to root them, will be an advantage to them by breaking up and 
softening the soil as far down as pulverized. Sows ivith suckling 
pigs should not go on them, as the artichokes are said to injure the 
quality of the milk so as to cause suckling pigs to dwindle ; but as 
soon as they are weaned the pigs will do finely by rooting for their 
living. These artichokes are also the healthiest food that hogs can 
have, and they need nothing else but salt, ashes and water when fed 
on them. 

Price per Qt. per Gall. per Bush. 



17 



130 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Mamial 



LE CONTE PEAR. 

I am prepared to furnish cuttings of this new pear, which originated 
in Georgia and is a hybrid between the "China Sand" and one of the 
finer cultivated varieties. It is propagated with remarkable ease from 
cuttings, which make a growth of from 6 to 9 feet the first season. 
The fourth year from setting the cuttings the trees should commence 
to bear. Propagation by cuttings is considered the best method. 

This new Southern pear is as vigorous in growth as the China 
Sand, and is an enormous bearer. The fruit is large, pale yellow, juicy 
melting and of good quality, doing better in the South than elsewhere. 
It bears transportation well and commands the highest prices at the 
North. Time of ripening begins about the middle of July. So far 
this pear has never been known to blight. It promises to be the pear 
for the South. 

Price $2.00 per hundred by Express or freight. Postage extra by 
mail. 

x\ll choice varieties of nursery stock can be obtained and furnished 
at reasonable rates on application. 




iisriDEZx. 



Page. 

Almanac ... .... . 7 to 18 

Artichoke . . 23 

Aspara}j;us 23 

Beans (Bnsh). 24 

Beans, (Pole) 25 

Beets 26 to 28 

Borecole or Kale 28 

Broccoli ... 28 

Brussels Sprouts 29 

Bulbous Roots 113 to 117 

Bouquet Papers 117 ^ui 118 

Cabbage 29 to 33 

Cauliflower . 33 to 35 

Carrot 35 to 37 

Celery 37 and 38 

Chervil 39 

Collards 39 

Corn Salad .39 

Corn 39 and 40 

Cress 40 

Cucumber 41 and 42 

Climbing Plants .111 and 112 

Directions for Planting 78 to 84 

Dhouro, or Egyptian Corn, 126 to 128 

Eggplant 42 

Endive 42 and 43 

Flower Seeds 94 to 110 

Grass and Field Seeds. , 70 to 77 

Garden Implements 120 to 122 

Herb Seeds 69 

Hot Bed 20 

Jerusalem Artichoke 128 and 129 

Kohlrabi 43 

Le Conte Pear 130 

Leek 43 and 44 



Page. 

Lettuce .... 44 and 45 

Letter on Alfalfa 91 to 93 

Matthews' Hand Cultivator 120 

Melon, Musk 45 and 46 

Melon, Water 47 and 48 

Mustard 48 

Nasturtium - 48 

New York Seed Drill 119 

Okra 49 

Onion 49 to 51 

Parsley 51 and 52 

Parsnip .52 

Peas... 52 to 54 

Pepper . . 54 and 55 

Potatoes 55 to 60 

Pumpkin 60 

Price List 85 to 90 

Price List Garden Implements. .123 

to 125 

Eadish 60 to 62 

Eemavks on Raising Vegetables 

for Shipping 5 and G 

Roquette .... 62 

SpiuMch 62 

Salsify 62 

Sorrel . . . .... .63 

Squash .... 63 

Seeds by Mail 4 

Sowing Seeds 21 

Shallots 51 

Tomato 64 to 66 

Turnip 66 to 69 

Table showing Quantity of seed 

r^iquired to the Acre 22 

Vegetable Garden 19 




•"% 








^ >.%^ r . Q 



rf^4^ 



=^-^^ 



Nos. 15 & 17 Du Mair\e St., 

Address' <dl Commnnicatlons to P. O. Box WOO. 



'1- 



DEALER IN 



ejetaMe, Jjtioircr and J|iel 



mm 




ED 






^m$) fot'^tQt^ 



Jk e^K'CTAli^^(^ 



My stock of Seeds is the largest in the South, to which 
I call the attention of all in want of Fresh and RelialDle 
Seed. 

Orders respectfully solicited. All communications will 
V meet with prompt attention. 

^v. ' '